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Red Deer -- Cervus elaphus 3:26 - 3:30 Play 3:26 - More
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Distant bugling; People in background  

Red Deer -- Cervus elaphus 5:33 - 5:36 Play 5:33 - More
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Bugling  

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Interview 12:37 - 14:49 Play 12:37 - More
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Mike McIvor  

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Banff National Park; Wildlife movement amid development  

Interview 21:31 - 32:35 Play 21:31 - More
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Mike McIvor  

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Banff National Park; Wildlife movement and development  

Interview 37:20 - 52:49 Play 37:20 - More
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Tony Clevenger  

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Banff National Park; Wildlife movement and development; Trans-Canada Highway effects on wildlife populations  

Sound Effects 54:09 - 1:04:19 Play 54:09 - More
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Distant perspective; Close perspective  

Red Deer -- Cervus elaphus 1:20:34 - 1:20:39 Play 1:20:34 - More
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16 Female  

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Time of day: 1940  

Red Deer -- Cervus elaphus 1:32:29 - 1:32:34 Play 1:32:29 - More
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Time of day: 1950  

NPR/NGS Radio Expeditions
23 Sep 1998

    Geography
  • Canada
    Alberta
    Locality
  • Banff; South ridge Tunnel Mountain
    Latitude/Longitude
  • 51.17546   -115.55313
    Recording TimeCode
  • 12:37 - 37:01
    Geography
  • Canada
    Alberta
    Locality
  • near Banff; near Trans-Canada Highway
    Latitude/Longitude
  • 51.20932   -115.53648
    Recording TimeCode
  • 37:01 - 1:09:04
    Geography
  • Canada
    Alberta
    Locality
  • Banff
    Latitude/Longitude
  • 51.169998   -115.560229
    Recording TimeCode
  • 1:09:04 - 1:41:11
    Channels
  • Stereo
    Sampling Rate
  • 48kHz
    Bit Depth
  • 16-bit
    Recorders
    Microphones
  • Sennheiser MKH 30
  • Sennheiser MKH 40
    Accessories
    Equipment Note
  • Stereo=1; Decoded MS Stereo to 0:37:01; Spaced Omni Stereo using Schoeps mics to end

Y2Y DAT 1

MM = Mike McIvor
KH = Karsten Heuer
TC = Tony Clevenger
AC = Alex Chadwick
CJ = Carolyn Jensen
CT = Chuck Thompson

:30 time 10:52
chuck checking recording; walking; starting again
wind, faint jingling sound; talking off-mic, v faint, phone ringing ...
3:26
horn blowing, voices, tv? in background
traffic, birds calling, tv or radio off-mic.
5:34
horn blowing sound and then louder traffic.
7:35 ct
11 : 00 am, pretty much failed attempt at getting elk. coyote ran right in front of me...on a woodline ... three elf, very close to civ and right in front of me a coyote.
8:43 9/23/98
9:02 kh
I think because y2y is focused on sort of containing wildlife movement between good areas of habitat for animals what I'm trying for you guys to get today is a sampling of how Banff and the bow valley is a microcosm of many many of the problems being exp throughout the landscape, so here the a major thing is urban dev and the highway, the highway will be this afternoon. we thought we might just go on top of the mountain and just walk six minutes and talk about the golf course and what kind of an impediment that that is to animal movement in combination with this plug of urban dev we have right here. so it gives us a bit of an overlook as well it should be a little bit quieter to maybe. this is good though cause its realistic .... 9:57
talking about machinery in bground. and making plans.
getting into talking in car.
11:23 ct
a little ambience about ready to travel.

11:37 ct okay pick-up for the follow-up for interviews at the Banff center.
airplane overhead.
12:35 ac just tell me where we're going.
12:40 (walking) oh we're just going to the south ridge of tunnel mountain which is one of the major concerns in terms of wildlife movement. uh in the vicinity of the town is the v narrow area between tunnel mt and mt Rundle and its the area occupied by Banff springs golf course. so what we're going to do is actually go out and stand right on the edge of the the narrowest point there on tunnel and look across at Rundle.
13:3
and I think what we always to encourage people to do when they're trying to understand these types of issues and these types of problems is to think like the animals that in fact trying to make a living here too and uh and I think when you look across the site and see how narrow it is ...
13:55 (walking) so I think when you look across at this area and see the narrowness and the first all the activity around the town-site that uh is adjacent you realize what a challenge it is for part. wary animals to make their way through what is really a vitral connection for them. the predators need to get to their prey and the their prey have learned that if they stay in the area on the golf course and below that that they're rel safe there simply because their predators can't get to them and what we're trying to figure out is some way given the amt of development that exists to make that connection viable
14:50
16:49 ct walk by and moving up
@17:00
walking, another walk-by ambience
voices ct behind
19:00 ct at the overlook still ms, warming up, 11 :00 am.
ambi for overlook into

19:48 ambi traffic, wind
21:00
into w mike McIvor
21:36 mm
my name's Mike McIvor, I'm a long time resident of Banff lived here for almost 35 years and for most of that time been actively involved with the bow valley naturalists which is a local Nat history conservation organization spending a great deal of time with national park issues and in this park losing a lot of battles as you can tell by the amt of development.
22:18
ac
how deep is the valley floor there?
22:20 mm
uh we're standing ... prob 300 ft above the meadows there.
Ac--just note that straight down there
22:33 mm
yeah in fact right below us is one of the major practice climbing routes in this part of the park its called the gonda traverse. there's an overhang and uh there were frequently
climbers here practice their skills.
22:57... ac
struck by how narrow this valley is
22:57 mm
yeah we're looking down onto a metal part of flood plain of the bow river then the bow
river and in the Banff springs golf course and then mt Rundle one of the Significant
mountains in this part of the park. and when you look from where we are to the base of
mount Rundle you know when I was came up here just now I was thinking you know if
you put a home run from mark mcguire and one from sammy sosa together you'd prob
cross the valley at this point.
23:25
its much less than a mile.
23:28 mm
oh yeah ... this is prob.. A-500 yds at most. and of course right across from us is the
maintenance compounds for one of the golf courses ... this is the narrowest point in any of
the areas that wildlife have to move through in the vicinity of the town. and yet right in
the middle of it is this maintenance facility ... parks Canada would like to see moved and
Canadian pacific hotels would prefer not to spend the money to move.

24:05 ac
so as narrow as this valley is about half of it is taken up by the golf course.
24:10 mm
sure and I think that's one of the things ... one of the things that we have to understand when we're dealing w wildlife and wildlife movement in the mountains is that even with a big park like Banff not all of that land is equally valuable to wildlife anymore than it is to us. obviously we seek out the best paces to put our roads our houses unfortunately, course this is often true planet wide, most of those places that we choose are also the best places for other species and so the squeeze is on but cert. here there is a major conflict and there doesn't appear to be viable movement through this what the biologists refer to as a pinch point.

ac

why can't a wolf or a grizzly bear move through that area there.
25:09 mm
well those are two diff species there and dealing with the grizzly first and any grizzly that was comfortable going through an area that narrow would prob be in so ,much trouble with people right now that its days would be numbered so wolves and bears, cougar species like lynx are wary of humans, they've had to be they've had to learn that. uh ... there may be the occasional habituated individual that would wander through here but the wild animals. the wary ones simply wouldn't be interested in trying to get through here and yet for wolves in particular a major part of their prey base is just downstream just farther downstream from where we're standing here and yet one of the ecological problems in the park is that the prey down here and the predators upstream and so far they aren't meeting.
26:08
26:09 ac
ac asks why wolves don't just go around to other side of mountain.
26:15 mm
well all around the base of this mt on the front-side on the west side is the town of Banff which sprawls a considerable distance and as you come around the other shoulder of the mountain on the other side you have tunnel mountain campground which is a major facility you have something like a thousand sites and at anyone time there could be more than three thousand people staying up there and compounding that is the fact that wolves that are moving out of the cascade valley where you people are headed in a couple days and using the north side of the valley ...in fact are not using the underpasses on the TransCanada highway is almost a complete barrier to movement of species like wolves ... elk has found this place a refuge ... putting pressure on vegetation .. .impacts on species that use that vegetation
27:55 27:58 ac asks about progress made ...how are you doing in carrying forward in your community...incorporate into their thinking in planning ...
28:30 mm well one of the difficulties when you are dealing with ecological issues is that they are frequently not visible and so that you can have the best eco. scientists on the continent to review the situation in Banff national park and determine that we are in a state of crisis as they have done some people find that hard to believe ... what that means and of course we promote nat parks ...primarily based on their scenic values. and you know we could lose the bears and the wolves from bow valley in Banff nat park and it would still be/an extraordinarily beautiful place. so its difficult for people to understand "it looks so beautiful how could there be any thing wrong with it?" and yet and I guess part of that is bc I think as a society I don't mean locally, I think north America-wide and globally we're profoundly illiterate ecologically and so we simply don't understand what eco processes are we don't understand we've even forgot to ask ?s about what the needs of other species are 30:08 we tend to confuse our needs with our wants and so in a place like Banff we haven't done a very good job of trying to understand what the landscape needs ... we haven't made a very good effort to understand that and even then when we have gained some insight it seems to be an uphill battle to convince people that its worth us as the dominant species making the conscious decision to pull back you know that's a hard thing for us to do.30:56 all of us have grown up thinking that the world is ours to take from it what we can and the only thing that holds us back is our own individual lack of ambition and yet we're standing here in a place where we need to do a really radical thing and that is to back off and we're not very good at doing that 31:19
ac asks about subdivision behind hill...
31: mm yeah the slopes of sulfur mountain are one of the areas .. .is a place where wildlife needs to travel through ... and the area that they have to move through is becoming increasingly constricted between housing dev and the steeper slopes and cliffs of the mountain which they can't traverse. so they can only traverse with difficulty and so when we looked at that we pointed out that that's where I live, that I'm part of the problem. and I think that's an imp acknowledgement. I don't think there's anything to be gained by anyone in the conservation movement adopting any sort of stance based on purity we all have an influence on the part of the world that we are involved with and we need to be doing what we can to minimize the neg affects. 32:54
ambi after interview traffic, wind.
33:16 pause
taking pictures, talking about plans. 35:04 transition and ambi
35:15 okay thanks (mike and alex) walking away, ambi, traffic and wind, faint voices.
36:57
talking off-mic, low levels
Tony Clevenger intv
ambi
38:22 ct schoeps omnis for interview. trying to make very wide and noisy.
39:03 AMBI for intv w Tony traffic sounds, plane?
40:39
40:46 tc my name is Tony Clevenger i'm a wildlife ecologist contracted by parks Canada to study the effects of highways and particularly the trans-Canada highway.
Cj
asks about fence
41:10 tc this fence has two purposes its to keep the animals off the highway right of way and also to divert animals to a series of underpasses which perforate the TransCanada highway.
Cj and what kinds of animals would be coming through here?
cJ
what happened to necc. the building of fences and over/under passes.
42:02 tc and in the mid-80s there was roughly a hundred elk killed on the trans-Canada highway...many accidents, no human mortalities. and also just the loss of decline in elk pop so they decided that ... and how do the underpasses work?
42:47 the underpasses work well for some species for other species they don't work quite as well. for large carnivores they do not work quite as well1. we do have black bears and cougars using them quite frequently although grizzly bears and wolves the highway seems to be a filter barrier and they are reluctant to use some of the underpasses 43:08
cj asks how underpasses are built, what they look like
43:19 uh they're basically tunnels underneath a highway they're on average about ten meters wide four meters high, 20-3-meters long vegetated on the outside ... some of them are quite dark. .. for some animals it may look a little threatening to travel in one of these but the sound of the traffic and highway but amazingly quite a number of species have adapted to these underpasses
44:00
cJ
and as far as overpasses
44:08 tc the overpasses were completed in nov of 1997. we don't have a full years data of monitoring the wildlife use of the se structures. we do find ungulates using them frequently, a cougar has used it black bears have traveled over it three times we really won't know how effective these structures are for at least another five years ... they are 50 meters wide, vegetated with spruce tress, row shrubs we try to make them as natural as poss so that wildlife will fell comfortable ... trying to enhance wildlife movement across.
45:15
cJ
would you call them corridors?
45:15 tc the structures ... def corridors they are basically very site specific v narrow conduits for travel uh for wildlife in this valley to get across the highway essential for maintaining connectivity, habitat connectivity and maintaining genetic interchange so its v instrumenta1. .. and allow for proper movement across habitat.
46:00
smaller animals?
46:09 tc
its not something, normally a concern, we're more concerned with the larger charismatic fauna, the grizzly bears, the wolverine but also we've taken a lot of time to maintain habitat connectivity of the smaller fauna ...using brush piles for cover...don't find small animals crossing trans-Canada highway ...
47:25 cj
asks what scientists came to study in Banff today
47:46 tc
they're interested in finding out first of all what these structures look like, most of them have never seen wildlife overpasses or underpasses here in Banff Nat park we have several designs for underpasses and they range from metal coverts to concrete bridges ... so they've come here first of all to learn or see these structures ... they're exp in the rocky mountain states to take info back to supervisors...
48:44 cj
I have this mental image of which seems fantastic ... of this wildlife crossing these highways ... this was their land. have you actually seen wildlife crossing overpasses?
49:14 tc
live never seen wildlife crossing overpass, live seen crossings on the underpass ... but we're not monitoring passage by observation, it's by great tracking sections and by using infrared operated camera. but we would like to see one one day that would be fantastic 49:50
50:04 cj
sense of what it used to look like here?
50:14 tc
think I could imagine, it doesn't take much to get up into the hills here and or you don't see the highway of or the railway but you can cert hear it and as you look out into the bow valley you can envision what it looked like a hundred years ago. or a hundred 50-years ago before anyone was here. un fort we don't know how wildlife travelled then ... we don't have any info of how wolves or grizzlies used to cross the valley ...never going to be able to restore ... but its a means of minimizing the effect of the highway.
Cj
railway underpasses?
Cj
no, but source of mortality?
52:21 tc
no the prob w railway is its private ... so its ...we're at a very preliminary stage of trying to communicate with them.
53:00--53:35 end of interview ambi for into
53:50 ct ambi walk towards highway collect ambi and walk back.
wind @55:20 highway, cars passingl:02:00 highway sound very close, cars passing
1:04:20 end of attempt to capture highway sounds
1:04:32 ambi. walking back to interview spot to capture leaf sounds at closer proximity
1:05:15 ambi
traffic in background @1:06:24 walking, something rustling leaves? 1:07:25 leaves not making any noise.
walking, traffic, crunching sounds
1:09:10 AMBI start out in wind, trying to get some elk. 1 : 15: 19 camera sounds. not much sound, just very faint traffic and wind.
1:20:36 animal call (elk?)
1:21:09 wind picks up, @1:23:34 faint animal calls, growls @1:24:11, traffic in background @1:25:08, faint whistling in background, @1:26:46, @1:27:22* wind blowingl:30:08 wind blowing, someone on horseback approaching? clickety clack but very loud wind, clacking sound grows faint
1:32:32 screaming elk***
1:32:47 screams in distance, very faint.
becomes very windy again. plane over head @1:33:00--1:35:10
1:35:35 again wind picks-up @1:35:55 scream in distance voices in background and faint elk sounds @1:37:00 distant scream.
1:39:24 ac
we've been watching elk in Banff a bull wooing a maiden cow not v successfully, plenty of evidence in this area that he has been successful, 16 cows in ... every time the bull moves over to the cow and attempts to mount her, she moves away, guess she's not ready ... some screaming in the background ...
1:40:45 ct
getting dark, wind, 8:00 pm in Banff Alberta all omni-directional microphones.
ENDOFDAT

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