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Preliminary Participant Meeting  







2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami effects on Sri Lanka; Prithiviraj Fernando, Sanjayan Muthulingam, Ravi Corea, and other unidentified people  

NPR/NGS Radio Expeditions
29 Jan 2005

  • Sri Lanka
    Southern Province
  • Yala National Park; Park office
  • 6.372778   81.516944
  • Stereo
    Sampling Rate
  • 48kHz
    Bit Depth
  • 16-bit
    Equipment Note
  • Decoded MS Stereo to 0:13:22; Two-track Mono from 0:13:23 to end

Show: Sri Lanka/Tsunami
DAT #: 11
Engineer: Michael Schweppe
Date: 1/29/05

San = Sanjayan Muthulingam
PF = Prithiviraj "Pruthu" Fernando
EA = Elizabeth Arnold
MS = Michael Schweppe

00:00 ambi-MS setting up, saying hi to various people, packing bags

5:46 ambi-car noise

6:00 SAN-That warden's an idiot. He took off. That's the fastest that man's moved in 2 fucking decades. Sorry. [laughs] no one in Sri Lanka moves that fast. This guy is like-phhh, the boss is here. We're like what, he's like ahhh

6:40 ambi-car, men speaking foreign language

7:09 driver-this is the part of the road that was washed off. Can you see, this tsunami damage, did you fly over?

7:18 SAN-I don't know, what part is this?

7:21 driver-[Name hard to understand] Wildlife Sanctuary

7:22 SAN-Yeah, I'm sure we did.

7:25 driver-Did you notice these?

7:26 fx-radio beep

7:27 driver-or the ones near Karinda

7:30 fx-beep

7:37 man in radio-I have no idea what you're saying

7:38 driver-Do you want us to go this way and you check Karinda and we'll just join you in Karinda if this is not the place or you'll come back if they're not in Karinda?

7:48 fx-beep

7:57 man-I guess, I guess you are doing that.

8:00 fx-beep

8:01 man in radio-speaks unintelligibly
8:06 driver-[speaks in foreign language then] yeah, Ok we're going.

8:12 ambi-truck revs, men speak over radio

8:36 driver-let me see where there is no sig- let me see where there is no signal around here.

8:49 SAN and driver-[speak off mic]

9:02 SAN-Mike are you recording all this?

9:03 EA-[laughs]

9:04 MS-just a little bit

9:06 EA-That's all you need

9:11 SAN-This is never, this is a spectacular sort of thing, I'm thinking about the sound of course but I am not used to thinking that way. The landscape is

9:20 MS-huh

9:23 driver-it's the bangala (SP?)

9:24 SAN-It's a vast, there it is, I can see they have the projector

9:29 man (TB?)-we're we around here

9:30 driver-yeah, this is the park office.

9:31SAN-and we went blasting by it. Well we're 2 minutes late, no we're not, we're actually here at 9. which is exactly when this meeting's supposed to start.

9:45 EA-You know, really quickly, the story here, its somewhat resilience, and my job is to make and my job is to make it more than oh, OK, fine, we don't need to care [hard to hear exactly as door slams, MS yawns]

9:55 fx-door slams, unloading truck

9:59 SAN-I'll sit next to you.

10:00 fx-loud humming noise

10:04 MS-Ummmm

10:06 EA-Nope, we'll just do the best we

10:08 ambi-footsteps, SAN talking to people off mic

10:28 SAN-I met you in DC

10:29 man-Did you?

10:30 SAN-yup. Oh, exactly, cause I worked uh with Malcolm, Jansen and all those guys. I was a graduate student, and I remembered your name and I was thinking could there be more than one that was in the wildlife department and went to Yale? And I am thinking, no, it was probably you. Good to see you again.

11:00 people-[all talking at once]

11:12man-Oh, by the way, they are National Public Radio from Washington DC, they would like to interview you.

11:22 EA-but after the meeting

11:23 official in charge (OF)-yeah, but let us get on with the job.

11:25 EA-Yes, yes, yes. Can we record the job?

11:27 OF-Umm, I doubt it because its only a preliminary thing and so we'll be mostly discussing so I would not like for it to be recorded because we will be discussing so many things. So I because it is the very very initial meeting of the

11:43 EA-I understand, preliminary.

11:45 OF-assessment, yes, so maybe you can record, I mean, in a sense you can just jot it down but not to ask.

11:55 EA-OK, that's what we'll do then. We'll record, but only for our understanding purposes. OK, fine. (to MS) so- record.

12:03 MS-right.

12:10 ambi--SAN and others speak in bg, tables moving

13:23 sound goes to mono

13:20 ambi-prepping for meeting, EA and MS off mic talk shop, look at agenda, men continue to discuss in background, unintelligible

16:32 OF-OK, good morning everyone and thank you to the people who are here. For attending our preliminary participant meeting and what we intend to do is actually uh find out where we are heading and then map out what we have done for the last ten or so days and then uh some kind of a consensus about the final report, and then our discussion about the preliminary findings, that is exactly the overview of this meeting and uh I would suggest that uh the [name, unintelligible] come in because you have volunteered for this job and then at the department we are very happy and we are pleased with the support that was extended by all the scientists and the wildlife department so uh actually as we all know there are so many experts who are trying to explore what has happened and there are different studies and we have been taken for a ride like from one meeting to the other and then everybody is telling, asking us what has happened for a couple days and everyone is asking us what has happened vertically and how damming and where did they extend and how much is and all that so I would say that we have taken the lead by having this group of people and then I would say that uh if we can it may be not over completely but I would be happy that we could get something pretty fast and then some kind of a rapid assessment that is what they are looking for because we don't want to interfere for a natural calamity for a natural the nature will take care of itself so we are not like something putting on [unintelligible] so we are talking about the natural system which we don't want to interfere so it's a question of observing its best that we observe from day one so its best that we can get the report soon so that we can start uh monitoring and then recording all changes that uh, that uh do happen after the tsunami so uh let me thank once again and then uh lets be very open and then uh, what was, I was surprised that Ravi that brought all this uh uh, feel free but then uh we'll try to see, actually we have been seeing and waiting a lot of of sort of statistics about the damage so I think you have all gone uh, through the area and then we can at least get a pretty good assessment uh, right then with all this from all over, so without much ado and then I will uh uh try to we'll stick to that and then I will try to [something] so we will end up before lunch. So what is essentially the what I advise actually the uh some kind of timeline where we can complete and get some kind of report and we can continue the study that is uh required otherwise we can get the report some time quite early so that when the gov wants something from the department about the damage and about the plan then we are in a position to uh provide that and so I would be happy uh if some timeline is discussed and quickly so we can complete and so uh, so with that very brief note I would hand over to [NAME] he's not here so maybe we can [unintelligible] maybe we can hear about the assessment from 20:48 [PLACE NAME] as we uh discussed at the last meeting our predicted areas uh from Kadu(?) up to Kaumana so it is mostly Karu, Blacko, Bundala, yala and ocomden. 21:05 Which are affected so we will try to capture what has happened we'll see and see how much we can do about tending how much we can uh plan out quite a few to maybe six months. With those few words, I will hand over to Emina (??) and to our scientists who are here with us. Thank you. 21:35

21:38 Presenter 1-The task that was given to [name] and I was to start looking from Bundala to [name]. We have basically focused on the south east of the bundala national park, we talked about earlier focusing on the southwestern end, on the southeastern end there was not much damage to see because the sand dunes had protected the uh bundala park but the eastern end and southwestern end were more [???] which uh [unintelligible as someone coughs] mangrove so our main focus has been on the yala national park, uh, we have uh unfortunately took much more time than we anticipated, at first we were going to go all the way to Panama, but in the middle of it we decided to concentrate on block one and document as completely as possible which we have achieved thus far. So what we will present to you today is the findings up to one, block one, I think uh [unintelligible] 22:54 so uh this is basically what we tried to do within this area, that was the area impacted uh the seashore of course, what is the impact on the sea shore, we tried to map the dunes and the sea shore to try and understand patterns of incursion, to see which areas have been protected and so on and also the impact in areas where water has come in, and then we spent most of our time on this activity, trying to uh, characterize the [unintelligible] impact on an area and the type of impacts, the the method we used was uh, impact assessment on the vegetation, we did a transect survey [22:38 fx-bird call very loud] and assessment of [unintelligible with bird] so uh what we did on the sea shore is we walked along the seashore in the [NAME] of Yala and uh looked at how the [unintelligible] at the height of the seashore because they could have eroded away and also uh the direction of the beach kept changing because the water has come in at a different angle, so we we basically recorded the direction of the sea line. Uh and also we whenever there are dunes we got an average height of the dune and then the position that the water has reached or if the water has gone over the dune because if that [unintelligible] and also we measure the dune height because [unintelligible] we used uh home made [unintelligible] meter and uh and this is our tape measuring basically but the hypotenuse and the angle and then you see uh side meter we measure the height of the dune and we did the same thing too because in some areas we could see where the water had reached because there are signs something tangled on the trees and so [25:06 fx-loud cough] so uh, using the height, using signs on the trees, all used we measured the height of the wave. And then uh, uh the in the area impacted by the sea water here what we saw was the impact saw 3 signs. The water has come in and and uh in area the water has entered you can see this kind of damage where the trees are all bent over they are dry completely damaged but the damage doesn't stop there. The water has moved further away where the trees are not impacted but the under story is clearly impacted. And we could clearly see here like it, you can see a clear line where the grass and the under story trees have died out and then at one point on this side you can see a nice green vegetation on this side so it was very easy to id the line where the water had stopped, so basically we see 3 types of damage, one on the coast, of the wave, which has completely gone under the wave, its not dead though because you can see the green line, but in other areas the forest looks fine but other areas are impacted. Because of sea water and then we also saw in some areas where the [unintelligible] where you can see here you can see this plant is completely submerged in one foot of sand has been deposited on the ground vegetation covering so we tried to record all of this but we were mainly focusing on this, plant [unintelligible] outer most level which water has reached. And then above the vegetation, that's another area. SO what we did was we walked it out. The region, and taking GPS where the line has changed put it into a GIS. And this is the vegetation study we did, we took the direction at which the water had entered did a line transect along the initial area and uh, one hundred meters in the woods, we tried to record what the vegetation is there. And so forth, so we have done all transects at 9 different locations, uh, we have

27:48 questioner-that's 9 transects per location or-

27:51 P1-no no.

27:53 SAN-So in some locations you did more than 1?

27:55 questioner 2-Couple of questions [something about water direction, cant make out over cough]

28:01 P1-So basically what we were doing is damage to grass and herbs and uh and damage to bushes and damage to trees. So this is the back location [unintelligible] So if you look at the grass, and the herbs is what you can see is the line indicates the beginning of the transect the end of the median and the end, now you see in the beginning all that and then when you reach the tops of this you get past the [??] and then this one we think is after because only in this one location we got some of that which very gently settled in, and then if you look at the middle transect you can see uh the durations changes. Because you can see that the beginning, most of it is dead. But as you come down to the clear, the number of dead increases partly [unintelligible]. And then we also look at the recovery we can see in the earlier areas there is very little recovery but in the [??] the recovery increases. Questions? We have basically looked at 4 things, uprooted, partly uprooted, standing but with no leaves, standing with leaves. Here you can see that the middle and the end there is not much of a pattern but if you look at the early part, at the beginning of the transect, here, here, here and here, you can see uh there is the impact uprooted, the impact of [??], still standing with few, standing with leaves. But at the end, if you look, the proportion of uprooted are less, most of them are standing and most of them are with any leaves so we can know basically what to expect, see there is [??] damage at the beginning, through the bush land but as you get further in the damage is less. Uh I think about the recovery, at the beginning you are starting to see there are beginning to recover, fairly quickly, in the middle, and at the end the recovery is much greater so basically some of these things are beginning to recover quite quickly and if you look at the trees, uh, if you look at the middle and the end you don't see much but if you look at the early part, you can see very clear, this is the girth size, as the girth increases, uh, you can see uh yeah, these are the standing trees, you can see this is wide, its uh, much greater, if the girth is greater, you can see the ones which have no girth, very few have survived. What this map actually shows is the survival rate as a function of the tree girth so you can see that as the girth increase, the survival increases. This is the pattern that we saw, probably because as the girth increases the trees are taller and they provide [something] to water but lower trees which are bush like [unintelligible] and if you look at the recovery of the vegetation. No higher resistance to water. And if we take a tree like this, water goes through [unintelligible] for there is less of a chance for [32:16--unintelligible talking over several people] So the water has not reached the crown. Its much less, it seems to have survived better, than the trees.32:26
32:27 Q2-unintelligible

32:34 P1-that is also possible. It may be a combination.

32:40 Q3-question about tree size, very hard to understand

33:20 P1-So when we look at the tree recovery, we see that recovery is higher at the early part of the transect and at the end of the transect. In the middle the recovery is low. That's because these plants are more adapted to saline water, the water that has come in would not have a great impact on them and they would recover better, and this has received less amount of salt water so the recovery would be better. The middle which has got none of that adaptation and has trees that are not adapted to saline, seems to be recovering slower than the trees at the end of the transect. Uh so what we can do at the study, the flora seems to be the ones that have received most damage, because we are not going to talk about fauna, vegetation damage was fairly extensive, however, most of it is going to recover, based on what we see, we can see that the trees are sprouting back again and we also feel that the trees are recovering so its not going to be succession. Its more like a recovery regionally because this is not going to be, now we can see or think of two scenarios, here the trees are wiped out, [unintelligible]. We don't see a lot of things growing in the gaps or

35:04 Q4-[another question about recovery regions, hard to discern exact words]

35:33 P1-maybe the middle ones will also be recovering, we see that instead of new plants colonizing there, the existing ones are recovering so it is going to be a recovery rather than a succession where new things come so uh the possible might be [??] what they predict is based on what they see. The recovery is mostly existing plants rather then bring through an entire succession.

36:07 Q4-but but but

36:15 P1-The middle area. The middle area is having the flora recovery

36:20 Q4 question about transect sections

36:40 P1-oh definitely, and the other thing that we noticed is that the difference is that species seem to recover at different rates. Some things are recovering much faster, other things slowly, but we don't have enough data to uh support this because we did not look at individual species at this point but it is something that we statistic that should be monitored, how different species recover from this, whether there is a difference in the abilities of the plants to recover some much better than another to recover from this kind of damage. Um and also in the grasses we saw there seems to be some correlation with the amount of sunlight, in areas where it was completely blown out, in the sunlight it is recovering much better. When you walk around you can see that the grass that has recovered rapidly in areas where there is sunlight so there are many factors co-operating on this recovery. And we only have 20 minutes [unintelligible]

37:52 another voice-so there are seedlings and there may be some areas succession but basically I mean when you look at it, it looks so blasted that you would think it would be completely succession. But here its more for recovery, but you have some areas of succession, possibly.

38:10 another man-based on the speed of recovery. And uh tolerance to the salt content that is there and there is, there has some changes in the patterns.

38:24 people-all talk at once

38:27 P1-Further commentary on succession versus recovery in different zones.

39:26 P1-I think for monitoring activity transects wont be enough, you'll have to do a great deal more monitoring because the transects vary every 100 meters. So the maximum incursion was about 1.5 kilometers. So there are just not enough points to come to any conclusion.

39:40 - presenters talk over each other

39:51 SAN-The most interesting thing, and completely I'll expect the thing about your studies is impact on the middle zone, I mean, I really wouldn't predict that until you showed us and it and I would suspect it will hold up as you start doing something more rigorous statistically. There are 2 things one is what the director has said before, which is that if you are going to see succession there you are more likely to see it in that middle zone. As opposed to regeneration which is maybe the more dominant thing you'll see in the upper and lower zones, so you can have that comparison right in there. The second thing is adaptation which is your possible explanation for what you're seeing is clearly a factor, could be a factor. The other factor could also do with topography. So and then how long salt water stood in one place. So it could be that it breached the the early coastal zone area, and the high ground gets washed back quickly, so in that middle area you ended up having more salt water spending more time. There, and so you're seeing the greater and so that's the alternate. And you could probably get an idea of that just by looking at the species composition. If it is not markedly change, then adaptation is probably not the reasonable explanation. It may, I think one of the things that [NAME] was telling me was about the dunes being the protective factor, so when you walk up to that beach zone you get a little bit of a rise. So if the water breached it because of an unusual event like a tsunami, it breached it and then it flowed up into the high ground, then it'll back. The fall back is not going to be as powerful as the fall in. so if you have standing water, you're probably going to get standing water in the middle zone. So the trees in the middle zone may have subjected to longer exposure of salt water than in the higher or the lower zone.

42:04 P1-that again is something we can still look at if we do the grids and then test for soil salinity, you might still get an idea. Because in some areas you can see the salt patches right on the soil. On the ground, so it'll be interesting to look at these patterns.

42:25 people-talk over each other about species in zones, adaptation, succession, topography.

43:35 P1 and questioner-discussion of mapping techniques

44:08 P1-So basically, we went, uh, we mapped the areas of incursion along the coast, and these 3 divided into sort of 2 groups they were subjected depending on the area that was affected. These are areas that basically that we thought were major incursions, and there were some areas that we thought were minor incursions. So starting from this here, from yala safari was an area of very large impact, and for us [unintelligible] kind of conclude with that, the next incursion was at uh Masiliba (SP??) [name of a river] the water flowed just along the outer, uh, channel, so it was not much are was inundated there. [NAME] to a large extent very powerful [2 NAMES] and then, Kalia at this end, uh, as earlier mentioned, we couldn't go beyond that because there were also problems of access and the rain and all that. So uh, going to a bit more detail. Uh, at Punambura (SP?) the thing first of all is I would say were impacted, but [NAME] over here, this is the Yala safari area, yala safari was here so [NAME] area but [something] by the roadside here was inundated, the potnongala, over here, there are patnolgola river was breached so that has been connected. [name] again was inundated and also possible some incursion of salt water into [name] the water came up to a number of fresh water bodies but didn't really inundate them so there was only some sort of minor splashing to them because of the wave coming up, but they aren't likely to have been impacted to any great extent 46:28 so those are the [names fresh water bodies] So now if we look at the individual sites, so this is basically the shoreline, there is a sand dune here and there is a small sand dune here, so this area in between the two sand dunes is actually a fairly low lying area. Where there was a patch of forest on sand, its possible that this area was at one time a part of the lagoon, which got penned up and then the scrub forest grew there. So here basically the wave front was approximately 2 kilometers in length. And the water is just gushing through this way and this way and taking everything with it to the lagoon. And [name] is here and yala safari lodge is here. So we are just in the direct path of the water, that's why there was so much damage there. Again, this is not very detailed, but these sand dunes actually prevented water from going over here, there is some incursion here and then here what happened was the water went around and flowed back into these areas. So in this area, [something] damage is not high, its more due to inundation by salt water. But here on the end of it, where it got inundated by flowing water. 48:10

48:14 Questioner-you have sand dunes on both sides?

48:18 P1-There is a big sand dune here, there is a small sand dune, and then there is a sand dune here. The map is incomplete.

48:24 Q-[unintelligible question, then discussion about geographic landmarks]

48:31 P1-Basically in between, yeah, its basically on the beach. So was Yala Safari.

48:39 Q-So you are saying that there is an actual sand dune there?

48:42 P1-I think it is, yeah. I mean these are actual sand dunes so I think at one time this was part of the, excuse me, [identifies place names] but its possible that in the past it was over here, so there is actually a natural channel right here.

49:02 Q-discussion of sand dunes near Yala Safari

49:23 new questioner-I was wondering about it because I would have expected another sand dune here.

49:29 3rd questioner-I also recall a sand dune there, there was sand dune, we just set the height of the wave.

49:35 questioners and presenter-chorus of agreement

50:00 P1-Yeah, because basically it is like this, there are 2 there, and this would have been all lagoon area, which is [unintelligible].

50:10 questioner-it would have been before [unintelligible] wasn't it the same height as the den, about the same height.

50:24 P1-We're saying there is still a remnant that didn't get flooded, it didn't go over there, but here, it is kind of unusual that it was flat and I have no idea that there was a sand dune and that's what you're seeing and that's the only reason why it came this way. It could have come in here anyway because that was I think the old outlet for the lagoon. And one, I dunno, and its uh, the [???] is very very narrow and its very small. But it's the same situation with you know, how much [??] of it was inundated cause I think under all [???] level, it's the same thing.

51:22 P1 SO when we look at [NAME] again there is a sand dune up to here, and then this other sand dune comes in here, so the entry point is actually very small compared to the yala safari area, its about the width here is about 50 meters and the extent of the incursion is correspondingly less. The habitat affected here is mostly a scrub forest along the lagoon. Uh, I forgot to mention that at Yala Safari the habitat most affected is scrub forest but it's a variant of scrub forest because its basically on the lagoon bed. So its scrub forest on sand, this is more typical. At [NAME] again there is another sand dune here, so the major flow was in here, and it flowed on this side of the sand dune, and into this area, the estimated wave height at these places, the estimation based on damage or things getting caught up in the trees, and here they were caught at a height of 9.2 meters. The wave came in here more than a kilometer and again, the habitat here, most of it is scrub forest. Because all this area is mostly scrub. And [something] damage and inundation there.

55:50 questioner-9.2 meters the height of the wave?

55:53 P1-Possibly, yeah, there is damage up to 9.2 meters.

55:57 questioner-At the entry point?

55:58 P1-At the entry point, yeah. That's the height above ground.

53:02 questioner-difficult to hear comment on wave dynamics

53:14 P1-at [NAME] again, the entry point was fairly narrow, only 100 meters, and at [NAME] the wave height was (1 or 7, can't tell).4 meters and it didn't go very far. Again, the water went this way and then flowed around the perimeter again. This part of the bay, there is grassland so part of it is effect the water went up to the earlier level but did not enter the [???] so it, we don't think that any of it was effected.

53:43 questioner-question about dune location, discussion about sand dune locations

54:33 P1-If it is a narrow inlet, it comes in but then soon dissipates. but if its big it just keeps going I guess. At [NAME] it's a fairly wide extent uh, almost a Km across, 6.1 meter estimated height, the maximum incursion is 1.3 km so its gone pretty far there. The obviously there is grass, that's probably one reason that it went that far. Again it went up to river level but didn't go into the reservoir that is protected. There is structural damage even this far out because the wave would be coming through the grassland without any hindrance so again, main types of damage are inundation, mostly in the grassland, and then some structural damage over there. [NAME] again, these ones are all similar to each other, water came in here, again, through a fairly narrow inlet of 100 meters. And then flowed this way and this way, it inundated [name] so that probably changed the salinity of that water body, again, scrub forest. [Name] and area adjacent to the potnongala, some in here, again there is a wide front that got affected, possibly because there is not much of a sand dune here, and in this area, the sand dune was actually breached, again, it's a wide area, most of this area is scrub forest so there is mostly structural damage. Potnangala, um, if you, basically, the impact was also had a lot to do with the um design of the side of the bay. Potnangala is basically a bay which starts here and then goes right up the island. There aren't that many bays in between. So the whole bay got [something] up here and then in here and also there are 2 big rocks here which directly are going this way. So I think there's a lot of channeling here, and there is a lot of damage at Potnangala. Although the recorded estimated height we could record was 6.2 meters, its likely that it was higher there, and the [???] of the impact at Potnanagala. [NAME] is the area of next to the river, this is the river that is going to the see over here, so this is the boundary of block 1 and this is block 2. Here the sand dunes are very broad, this area, its about 500 meters in extent, and here the sand dunes are lower and it becomes higher over here. Plenty high over here, and again there are patches of scrub forest and uh left over there, which were impacted by the wave. So again its mostly structural damage.

58:00 SAN-what's sort of the average distance of wave incursion, just on sort of, not in places where there is a bay or river mouth?

58:10 P1-We have that too because we mapped the whole thing, uh, where there was sand dunes, so I haven't calculated that, but we believe probably a hundred meters.

58:20 SAN-Just if you're estimating, a couple of hundred meters?

58:23 P1-less than that. [followed by some discussion between presenter and questioner]

58:28 SAN-and then the second question is, how far a distance were you able to survey, so for I, I didn't see the scale on that first map, you had it but I, on the first map?

58:40 P1-Its about 16 kilometers [followed by discussion of maps]

59:00 Q-[unintelligible]

59:20 P1-continued discussion of map, some points he covered.

59:50 P1-So basically groups like small mammals, like land snails, have died, and amphibians have been heavily affected, large mammals are unlikely to have been heavily affected and also likely will not be affected. However, the impact of the tsunami was very patchy, incursion was in only distinct, well defined areas, and since all these groups that are likely to have been affect have all enormous populations in general, its unlikely that this would have an impact on these species, per se. Also interestingly the changes in the landscape that happened might also affect some groups. Because now there is different habitats that have been created in these areas that were not so common previously, there are large tangles of vegetation which provide cover for many nesting birds or reptiles and things like that. Interestingly we were also thinking whether now some couple of at least fresh water have got more saline, like [name] and possibly maybe [name] that might actually be opportunity for things like waders which belong mostly in [something] water bodies. So while everything basically, because it is a natural thing, while one group of fauna has, its detrimental to them, it will probably be an opportunity for another group of fauna, so its something interesting to just think about, when we think we need to do something and what we need to do.

1:01:31 Q-about animals in water holes.

1:01:40 P1-That's another thing that would be interesting, re-colonization by things like frogs. How quickly that happens and how that's going to interact with the salinity factor.

1:01:48 Q-again about water holes, then discussion about particular locations

1:02:15 P1-There are lots of dead fish outside, I mean on the ground. Didn't see any dead fish in the fresh water, its one month after

1:02:38 Q-discussion of frog recolonization, land snails, people talking over each other.

1:03:07 Q-effect of land snail death

1:03:09 P1-Well, the thing is, its very patchy so it depends. Now for a land snail, the scale is what is important. For the land snail, sure it's a huge thing. So what something that goes and feeds on land snails, it has an area that it goes around in a few kms, then its unlikely. But if its limited to a meter scale, sure it would be big.

1:03:37 P1-So, a few things that we thought we might want to discuss, are possibly a renewal of the [??] I think might be an important thing to think about because especially on the yala safari side there's a whole lot of debris that is all over the place and it will be a major job to clear it. And one would need to think how that could be done with minimum impact. So how you could possible set fire to the hotel, but then the disturbance there would be much bigger than the tsunami. And so you have to think about how we can do it. So I guess since this is a national park, we probably don't want luggage and debris lying around. So that I think something very important, I think it is also important and interesting to monitor the recovery in different habitat types, I would think that tsunamis occur in this region with a periodicity of a few hundred years. The last recorded tsunami was in 1883, there's one recorded in the 1500s, so the last time that a tsunami impacted these areas, basically there was not much science. So I think this an opportunity after a few hundred years to study the natural process and probably this area is one of the only sites in the world that you can do this, so I think from a global perspective its very important to do proper monitoring and studies of what happens. Uh, again, the fresh water, there is some impact on that, so if you monitor them for a while you could decide maybe what we need to do. Again, if, like I said, there may be pros and cons, there may be something here where we want to intervene, also I mean you could think of breaching, things like [names] so that it lets the water go and it fills up with the necessary, we would probably, probably we should think why we want to do that and what are the consequences of doing it or not doing it. Also I guess already some clearing has been done for functional needs, we need some visibility on the major roadways that we use, so I guess, clearing should be done for needed purposes like that. I would like to thank the people who work with us to make this possible, Dr [name] basically did most of the vegetation study dr[name] did most of the remote sensing data and did the maps for us and [name] did all of the field work, and also we'd like to that [names] and then [name] who came with us.

1:06:55 applause

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