Carl Casselton, Richard Harris
Farming and locust discussion. Includes French language.
Carl Casselton, Richard Harris
Farming and locust discussion. Includes French language.
Farm field ambiance
Carl Casselton, Richard Harris
Farming and locust discussion. Includes French language.
Carl Casselton, Richard Harris
Farming and locust discussion. Includes French language.
NPR/NGS Radio Expeditions
19 Oct 2004
- 15.62233 -16.22563
Decoded MS stereo
Date: Oct 16-23, 2004
0:03 LO (Leo): Okay here we go this is DAT number four and here comes Richard, let's just wait for a little bit. Jocelyn how are you its Leo everything's still the same and here we are. Okay. Yeah.
0:23 Carl in peanut plot w/stumps
0:24 CL (Carl): So this, all of this was planted this year as peanuts. You know this is great sandy soil; it's fantastic normally for peanuts. Senegal is a major producer of peanuts, they call them groundnuts. But you can see the stumps that were left when the hopper bands came through and, and, you know normally you'd have an abundance of peanuts in the ground. Now it's just an odd, so you've got two losses here you've got the loss of the nut itself and you've got the loss of the green material. Which this time of the year they use here, they harvest it and they use it for fodder for their goats and their sheep.
1:10 It's a major source of protein for small ruminants in the off-season. Of course¿c'etait dans aout donc? Ou c'etait septembre? Qu'ils sont mange ca? (Translation: So it was in August? Or was it September? That they ate this?)
1:15 cell phone rings
1:20 AJ: Non, ca c'est deja depuis aout, aout-septembre. (Translation: No this was already since august, august or September)
1:23 CL: Okay, so¿
1:26 cell phone rings again
1:25 CL: Castleton? Bom dia! (Continues speaking in Portuguese on the phone)
1:50 LO: Portuguese¿um you may want to re-tape that whole thing because¿
1:54 RH: Oh the track¿
1:55 LO: Well the track's ending also because it takes me just a minute or so to get the levels adjusted, remember every situation demands a little something so, but anyway so you may want him to go over this again. And where are we and things like that.
2:10 RH: And maybe he could pull some out of the ground for starters.
2:12 LO: Yeah, exactly. Oh that would be cool.
2:13 RH: Yeah
2:15 LO: You're right, or you could pull it.
2:16 RH: Yeah
2:17 CL: (Speaking on phone in Portuguese)
2:38 LO: And also you may want to tell Jocelyn what we are doing here and where are we.
2:41 RH: Yeah, we are uh¿I keep forgetting the name of this town.
2:47 LO: Lago, no?
2:48 RH: What?
2:50 LO: Is it Lago? Logo?
2:53 RH: What's the name of this town, I'm sorry.
2:56 LO: Looga, looga
2:57 RH: Okay so we're a couple miles outside the town of Looga and uh we've stopped on the side of a road in a sandy field. Very hot and sunny. Sandy, with a couple of military folks and somebody from the department of agriculture. And we're looking at damage done by the locusts. What you can see is rows that had been planted but all that's left of the rows are just a little bit of stubble sticking up no more than a couple of inches off the ground. All the rest is just stumps trimmed off for many acres from where I'm looking right here.
3:35 LO: And the ground is a little sandy.
3:36 RH: The ground's very sandy, yeah. Just essentially sand.
3:42 LO: And, okay. So here we are Jocelyn and uh what is it, it's Tuesday the 19th and uh this is tape number four, I think maybe I'm repeating myself. Anyway so here we go, we just continue to do this thing.
3:59 walking a bit, talking on phone in Portuguese in background, and others speaking in French in background
5:09 RH: You just can't see anything with this camera
5:10 LO: Well you know it's a very basic thing.
5:14 RH: I know, faces
5:20 LO: He has a really nice camera, do you see the camera that Erwin has, 16 megapixles, is it 16? Wow! That's pretty good.
5:35 RH: It's got a big card in there.
5:36 LO: And actually you know it's really quite flexible.
5:39 RH: Why don't I pull one up so we can sort of test the sound.
5:40 LO: Okay, unless you strain
5:47 RH: Not much came up on that one let's try this one. Ouch! Very prickly
5:50 pulling then up
5:55 RH: It's breaking off more than coming up. Let's see maybe it has to be dug up.
5:57 pulling them up, talking in background
6:00 talking in background
6:22 LO: I swear, cell phones can be¿laughing
6:28 RH: Well, somebody in Brazil has something important to tell him.
6:29 LO: Either Brazil or Portugal, but it's probably Brazil.
6:30 RH: Because he used to work in Portugal, or Brazil
6:31 LO: Yeah
6:32 moving around, talking in background
6:44 CHANGE SCENE
6:45 LO: Okay
6:56 speaking in French
7:13 RH: So they were doing some trenching¿
7:15 CL: Yeah we're going to go take a look at where they were trenching. The last two stops have basically to look at this complete damage particularly in ground nut fields.
7:25 RH: Yeah, we were interrupted in that, could?
7:26 CL: I mean this is impressive
7:27 RH: Well how so?
7:28 CL: Well, because there's nothing left and so they've lost not only the yield in terms of the nut itself, but it's very important here to have that green matter to serve as fodder for their goats and their sheep and small rudiments there. So they've lost both. Speaks in French with man
8:09 CL Okay, now what we're looking at would be the work of one farmer and his family perhaps with a couple of hired hand for the field. Speaks in French with animal
8:33 CL: So I was just verifying and, he could be, a lot of this work was done with animal traction, draft animals. But much of the work that's involved terms of ground nuts it's actually manual¿
8:46 car passes (?)
8:47 CL: You've probably seen these triangular hoes that they use in the sand for actually doing the weeding¿
8:53 AJ (Anja): Speaking in French about the animals they use
9:11 CL: Okay, so Mr. Anja is just clarifying that in terms of the mix of manual work with draft animals that they use the draft animals as they actually prepare the field. They'll use that implanting of ground nuts themselves and the initial uh cleaning of the first of the weeds. After that the plants become so dense that there really is a lot of manual labor involving several people.
9:33 RH: Just keeping the weeds out?
9:36 CL: Just keeping the weeds out. So it really is a shame. Speaking in French with Anja
9:47 CL: So you're looking at probably about five acres of ground nut field which will not produce a single cent.
9:52 AJ: Speaking in French
10:09 CL: Okay, and he's just clarifying that some of the farmers here, we're talking maybe four or five acres here, some farmers do tend fifteen acres, it depends on how much resources they have in terms of mobilizing their seeds and everything else.
10:25 RH: Yeah, yeah. Um, could, I think we got sort of lost in the middle with the traffic and the phone call, so would mind sort of pulling up some of this stuff and describing it once again?
10:36 CL: Yeah, sure, we'll just take a look.
10:37 walking, moving around
10:44 CL: Okay, we can take a look and see what the peanut plant looks like. Here are some that are actually still alive, and they've tried to recover from the damage and send out new leaves. But they're very small and as you can see instead of having twenty, twenty five fully sized peanuts at the end all we've got on this particular plant, we've got two that have any nuts at all and those are single grain peanuts there. You know, it wouldn't even be worth the effort to come through this field trying to find any peanuts for harvesting.
11:26 RH: And the stump of it, it was only sticking out an inch or two out of the ground or so.
11:33 CL: Yeah, yeah. And you can actually see where it was just chomped right off at the top there. Uh, this is one of the reasons that when the attack occurs is such an important factor. Because there are some plants, particularly the cereal crops where if the damage is early in the season the plants still have time to recover. They've got root systems and millet and sorghum can usually recover. But the problem here is that ground nut is not a very long cycle crop and the hopper bands came at a critical point in its development and once the damage has occurred basically you've lost it all.
12:09 car passing
12:10 AJ: Speaking in French
12:24 CL: So I had mentioned that we had two losses here, the nuts, the fodder, but we've also got to think about the seeds that were lost. This farmer lost the money he invested in the seed crop, and he lost the time and effort and labor that he invested in terms of all the preparation for the field. You know so it's hard to quantify those losses but they really are significant.
13:15 RH: So what was this, so what is this farmer likely to do next year for seed?
13:20 CL: Asks Anja in French
13:32 AJ: Responds in French
14:20 car passes
14:28 CL: As Mr. Anja was explaining at the beginning of this cropping season things looked good. In fact the Senegalese government had made a major effort, last year's rains were good. They were hoping for good rains this year. So they actually subsidized a lot of the inputs that small farmers needed for their production including about a 50% subsidy in terms of good quality certified seed. Subsidized inputs such as fertilizer and some of the other types of inputs. Unfortunately, you know there will be areas like this where you know, all of that was in vain. Just a complete loss. Hopefully, the government will be able to subsidize similar inputs next year
15:16 truck passing
15:17 CL: But it's almost certain that the locust will be back next year. So that will be a decision that needs to be weighed very carefully before major government resources are made available. In the mean time, for those small farmers who save part of their harvest as next year's seeds, this is a farmer that will have no seeds available unless the government is able to give him assistance at the beginning of this next year.
15:40 AJ: Speaks in French
16:09 CL: Yeah, the villagers were very optimistic at the beginning of this cropping season. Because it looks like the rains were good, the seed set was excellent, they were getting good vegetative growth at the early part of the season. Now they've lost it and they won't even be able to get a fodder crop off of many of these fields.
16:31 CL: Speaks in French
16:42 car passing
16:50 AJ: Speaks in French
17:14 CL: We're asking what's going to happen to these small farmers who have suffered even if it's localized loss, have suffered complete loss of their farming revenue. And Mr. Anja was explaining that it's going to be a very, very difficult time. Many of them will be going to the city searching for any kind of job to bring income into the household. Some of them will be heavily dependent upon their family and relatives who are living in foreign countries to increase the amounts of monies that they're sending back.
17:45 There may or may not be some assistance in terms of the government to the people that have suffered loss. That's still something that's under study. But it's going to be a long, hard time between now and the time this, this time next year when the next crop should be available.
18:06 AJ: Speaks in French
18:26 RH: Can you ask the drivers to talk a little bit more softly? Thanks. I can actually hear them from here. Laughing
18:33 CL: So Mr. Anja is clarifying that you know it's going to be¿.
18:42 AJ: Speaks in French
19:08 CL: Yeah, there is already an outcry from a lot of the villagers in terms of explaining that really they're in an area of natural disaster and requesting that the government intervene in terms of their immediate needs. Um, decisions have not been yet taken because of course there needs to be a process of the evaluation of the losses that did occur. Once that's done then the decisions will be made in terms of what type of assistance may be appropriate for those that were hit by the locust problem.
19:43 AJ: Speaks in French- that it's difficult for men, but also for the animals
19:57 RH: Yeah we had talked about the loss of fodder
19:59 CL: Yeah, well he's talking about the loss of fodder but there was also a loss of pasture grasses. Um, and if you've got a 40-50% loss of pasture grass then your animals won't have the resistance to get through the off season that you'd find normally.
20:15 RH: So will we see some pasture losses around here today?
20:20 CL: Asks Anja in French
20:22 AJ: Speaks in French
20:31 CL: Okay, we'll see some of that along the road to St. Louis
20:33 RH: Okay
20:35 group speaking in French
20:48 CL: Okay, this is more a field crop area. We'll take a look more on pasture grass¿
20:50 truck passing
20:56 RH: Can, um, can we take a photograph here?
21:00 CL: Sure. Asks in French
21:02 setting up for picture
21:19 RH: And do you want to get a minute of ambience or a couple of minutes of ambience?
21:20 LO: I do, if everybody's quiet or you can, guys, go away from me, or I'll go away from you guys. One of the two.
21:23 walking, talking in background
21:30 LO: Okay, I'm going away. Alright, I'm going away. So here we go. I am rolling ambience here and I'm going to try to record as much as I can close to where the interview was taking place. And as I walk around I see plenty of these uh, crickets, so here I go. I'm recording ambience, and you know I'm probably going to hear these guys talking anyway but here I go. Starting, oh I've got to get my head together here. Starting now.
22:02 ambi: car running in background (?)
22:37 birds chirping
23:23 car passing
23:47 birds chirping, talking in background
25:00 LO: Okay I think I have about a couple of minutes. I'm going to record cars leaving this actually now. So I'm just going to walk here with all this stuff. And these guys talk anyhow. So Jocelyn, or how's life? Mine is oh, what do you say? I'm not jet lagging. I'm a lucky guy. Slept well. Mostly by the consumption of alcoholic beverages I'm sure. Anyway, so these guys just keep walking around. And I'm not sure if they're going to find something. I wonder what Carl is pointing out.
25:32 walking, talking and birds chirping in background
26:11 LO: Oh, maybe corn. So, I'm going to approach these guys, see what they have to say.
26:18 walking, birds chirping and talking in background
26:40 crackling sound, talking in background
26:47 bugs buzzing, talking in background
27:08 CL: But it is a good example of how difficult it is to assess damage. Uh that here we're looking at a multitude of beetles feeding on the sorghum grain right before it's mature. We can see some loss of leaf materials due to locusts. The question is would the grains be fuller if the locusts had not fed. They could be. But the plant probably also has some ability to rejuvenate there. Probably the main losses that are occurring now are due to other pests. But then you'd also want to know why do we have just a very small stand of sorghum here, why didn't the other seeds grow?
27:52 AJ: Speaks in French
28:02 CL: Anja was just explaining that even though the locusts like millet, here is another corn like plant called sorghum, grain sorghum, that has very hairy leaves and that don't really¿it's tough, it's not tender leaf at all, it has hairs on it
28:27 truck passing
28:28 CL: And it becomes not a preferred food at all. If there's anything else to eat they'll go eat the other crops. But it's not, it's not everyplace in Senegal that you can grow sorghum. You need more rainfall for sorghum than you do millet.
28:42 crackling sound
28:48 CL: Yes, you had a question?
28:49 RH: Well, I guess I uh, the locusts came here fairly early in the season also, the locusts came her fairly early in the season right? Because these were hopper bands that got these sort of presumably at the beginning of the growing season. Maybe do you think this, would these plants, had they emerged by then? Well I guess they must have if they've got some leaf damage.
29:09 CL: Asks Anja in French
29:20 AJ: Speaks in French
29:36 CL: It was probably the hopper bands also that ate this at about the same time that they were feeding on the peanuts just next door. Um, evidently this started growing earlier. And even if it was lower in height at that time it had enough vigor in the plants to actually survive the attack and then it's natural sort of tolerance for grasshopper damage.
30:02 AJ: Speaks in French
30:10 CL: No, the best explanation is sorghum is fairly tolerant to locust and grasshopper attack but when we talk about hopper bands we usually think of them being on the ground. But certainly they will climb up you know the stalks and eat the leaves also. Anja has seen them, you know hopper bands, up on trees.
30:34 AJ: Speaks in French
30:36 RH: Trees taller than this? Yeah
30:37 CL: Yes, yeah, so even though they don't have wings, you'll find the immature locusts on the shrubs and up on the crop as it grows too.
30:52 RH: Okay, thank you. You can join us in a minute?
30:55 walking, talking in background, some birds chirping
31:36 LO: (talking about getting stung)
32:03 LO: Anyway I'm going to record a little more ambience here then I'm going to join all these guys.
32:18 CHANGE OF SCENE
32:24 LO: (testing mike) I'm sorry for some reason my machine blocked out on me because I was in terrible distress here. I was attacked by a whole bunch of nasty little furry creatures. Anyway, so here I am I'm going to be walking or working my way to the car. And I recorded a little bit of ambience before that interview. I'm going to record it here. Here is a little bit more ambience, they are starting the cars you know what I'm going to move closer to this so here we go.
33:00 zipping, walking
33:02 LO: And I am in fact rolling, 1,2,3, yes I am. Ok, I'll be there.
33:12 walking, birds chirping, car running
33:49 phone rings
33:55 walking, crickets chirping
33:57 LO: Alright right, well I'm walking towards the road here and every time I try to get something going I get a phone or somebody gets a phone call. (talking about the bugs) Here there are crickets actually. Let me see if you can hear them.
34:29 walking, talking in background
34:36 car door slams
34:46 LO: I don't know if you have but here hi am.
34:54 walking, talking, crickets chirping
35:00 walking, talking, radio
35:11 CHANGE SCENE
35:12 car running
35:24 door slams
35:36 Leo talking
35:37 walking, talking in background
36:28 RH: So were in a, this was a millet field. It looks like there's fairly substantial damage here too.
36:34 CL (?): Yeah this is one of the crops that the locusts like best. There are a couple of things here in terms of trying to determine how accurate the reports we're getting from the national farm protection service in the villages are. And we have to check to see if locusts have been here. And we see there are droppings on the ground. So we know that the locusts have been here. Then if we look at the grain itself. A millet is a long spike about 20, sometimes 30 inches long. We can see some grains which were not attacked and they're closely bunched together. And then there are areas where all of the grains have been eaten off and then it becomes, it looks like a big long corn cob with no grains left on it at all.
37:25 RH: That's most of what you're holding.
37:27 CL: That's most of what I'm holding and most of what I'm looking at. And uh to verify whether it's due to a locust or grasshopper as opposed to other pests then you take a look at what's left of the grain itself. And if it's chomped off then we attribute it to grasshoppers or locusts. There are other pests which suck the fluid out of the grain. That's not the cause of damage at this time. This is definitely a munching type of insect problem.
37:58 RH: Would this have been the youngest uh ones. Or would this have been the adult locusts?
38:03 CL: I suspect that these were hoppit bands but let's just check
38:05 CL: asks Anja in French
38:10 AJ: answers in French
38:16 CL: Yeah ok. Yeah he thinks, ok, yeah he thinks, yeah certainly the leaf loss is due to the hopper bands and much of the damage that was up here on the spike. There could also be some additional damage caused by the immature swarms.
38:35 AJ: speaking in French
38:39 CL: But the loss of a lot of the leaf material is probably due to hopper bands.
38:44 RH: So did the locusts come through here more than once? This field? Do you know? Did you get hoppers and then did you get the adult locusts a second time?
38:53 CL: asks Anja in French
39:00 AJ: answers in French
39:10 CL: Okay he had both at slightly different times. First he had the problem with hopper bands and then as they became immature adults then many of them came back to certain fields. And this looks like a field that probably had both problems during the course of the cropping season.
39:28 walking, talking in background
39:34 CL: Okay, we're going to take a look at an area where villages actually tried to dig large trenches and herd, villages tried to dig large trenches and actually herd these hopper bands into the trench, where they would then fill up the trenches with sand in order to kill them. You know a primitive but perhaps an effective way to use the resources. Here we go. Here you have a locust. Yup.
40:04 RH: Just a solitary fellow.
40:06 CL: Yup. So that's not part of a swarm.
40:10 RH: But that means they're still around I guess.
40:12 CL: They're still around. Yup.
40:12 car passing
40:20 RH: Hopeless to try to catch it. You could throw a coat over it. I spent a little bit of time yesterday trying to grab one and it was one that was basically dying I was able to pick up. But the guys who are alive are tricky to grab, yeah.
41:03 CL: We're already seeing the importance of getting to the field to get close in trying to evaluate the loss. If we were to continue drive on down the road seeing these large spikes. I mean I was under the impression that there were grains on them.
41:17 RH: Right when you stop you can see that there aren't. Leo I think that horse is coming down this road here do you want to try to get the horse coming down the road? I don't know if that's useful but it might be.
41:26 LO: Okay
41:26 walking, talking in background
41:35 horse walking, talking in background
42:00 LO: We're ok!
42:04 car starts
42:14 car passes
42:20 car running
42:40 cars driving
42:59 cars stop running
43:10 CHANGE SCENE
43:11 walking, talking in background, radio
43:34 AJ: speaking in French about trench
43:55 CL: So this is a trench that they were making expecting that larvae bands would be coming this far and they didn't arrive here. So this unfortunately was a lot of manual labor in vain.
44:08 RH: They dug a, it looks like it's about two feet deep. At least.
44:13 LO: I didn't get much of that perhaps you want to ask him what we're looking at.
44:14 RH: Yeah, could you explain what this is please?
44:20 AJ: speaking in French about trench
44:43 RH: So they were expecting the larvae to come across here and then they were going to bury them, is that right?
44:47 CL: That's correct. In fact¿asking in French
44:56 AJ: speaking in French
44:59 CL: Okay, yeah what we're looking at is only about two and half feet and maybe eight inches wide but it goes for over a kilometer in length and then soon after that there's another ditch. And some of this actually worked in that it served almost like a firebreak to the advance of the hopper bands. As the hoppers fell in here the villagers who had dug the holes were there and just buried them all. And it stopped them. There were other areas like this where they were out in front of the hopper bands but the hopper bands never made it this far.
45:33 AJ: speaking in French
45:40 car passing
45:43 CL: Okay. Anja's explaining that in one of the other trenches they ended up having so many hoppers and so much sand to bury them that a trench this size would be half full.
45:52 RH: That's a lot of work!
45:52 AJ: speaking in French
45:00 CL: Yeah so the whole village was mobilized. You'd have the adults digging the trench and then all the kids would be out there herding the hoppers toward the trench.
46:10 AJ: speaking in French
46:14 CL: They'd be cutting branches and aactuallly you know almost like a round up herding the hoppers toward the trenches that were set. Speaking in French with Anja
46:30 RH: So these weren't just the farmers, people who lived in the village came out to help them?
46:44 CL: Well it's an interesting question whether this was the entire village or whether these were just farmers. Out here almost everybody's a farmer. In one way or another whether you're a child or a woman or a man, they're all farmers and I was asking him whether they did this only in periods of stress whether they wanted to do this, I mean this is hard work. And he said they were actually doing this with pleasure because it was their way of actually doing what they could to try to prevent future damage to their crops.
47:14 AJ: speaking in French
47:24 CL: Oh this is very interesting.
47:26 car passing
47:28 CL: He's actually explaining that there was so much interest in contributing to the locust control effort that sometimes villagers would come from fairly far away to help the villagers that were in the process of doing these trenches. So even if they didn't perceive a direct threat to their crops they wanted to come and assist their neighboring villages in the effort. So I think that's a good measure of the effort that was made by the villagers of Senegal.
47:54 RH: Uh, a good measure of the effort but also, presumably also a good measure of the fear of these locusts.
48:00 CL: Oh yes. Yeah.
48:05 AJ: speaking in French
48:16 CL: So you could follow this up for a kilometer, six tenths of a mile. Then there's a short break and then there's another trench that looks just like it that was successful in actually trapping the hoppers long enough for the villagers to destroy them. Uh, it's a technique which is used in many countries of the world.
48:40 car passing
48:41 CL: The villagers like doing this. In terms of ultimate effectiveness you know you have to question whether it's worth the manual labor. But in times of crisis you use whatever you've got. Even if it's a shovel to try to control locusts.
49:00 AJ: Do you want to meet some farmers?
49:01 RH: Oh sure I'd love to.
49:11 CL: Okay
49:15 LO: (getting a bug off someone)
49:25 RH: Leave the engines off, because we need ambience here, right? Or do you think?
49:31 LO: I have ambience from the other place which we can use. It would be similar so.
49:32 RH: Okay
49:35 LO: It's a little breezy here and there so I think we're ok.
49:43 CHANGE SCENE
49:44 talking, birds
50:36 RH: Can you find someone for us to talk to from this village?
50:46 CL: They've already called someone
50:47 RH: Oh, excellent
50:44 talking to villagers in French
RH could you tell me your name please?
AB My name is Abu Buckley
RHAnd what is the name of this village?
52:43 kersamba noorkalen
RHwere you here when the locast came earlier this year
AByes I was
RHcan you tell me the story of that?
AB first came the adult they laid their egg then the rains, the hoppers came out,
AB then when it rains came out, they started to fight against them, at the first larvae
RH they fought against the first larvae
ABSo they started fighting hoppers, by pesticide, at that time they didn't tell the story to decision makers themselves, they broughts if from their buckets
55:06 so once they see hoppers, they will spray
RH once they saw the hoppers they sprayed?
AB when they saw hoppers they will spray, and have holes, put in holes and cover by sand, continue on the whole field, spray powder on the whole field.
RH Could you tell...okay,,,
AB at one point they went, they went to the agricultural department, they saw Mitchell told them its happening something that they can't control now, they need their help.
ABwhen they went to the agriculture, they gave them equipment to do holes and ditches, they did a ditch all around the village. The agriculture department sent cars sprays when they did both activities, they saw decreasing trend of the hoppers
57:27 (wolof and child crying in the background)
AB they started this activities, the other villages thought they are crazy they are fighting against god's will, so they were, these guys are not very, but at one point they thought they are fighting to prevent their crops
58:28 RH to protect their crops?
58:29 AB to protect their crops, so they are in the right track, but had it been only hoppers they would have bin in the bottom, but at one point the other came by air and so destroyed all the crops...
58:55 in one hour, the pink one, ate up all the crops around the village
RH what kind of crops do you grow?
59:04 AB millet, ground nut, cow pea, some kind of beet, and a corn and sogum.
59:27 RH And you got nothing from your harvest?
59:33 AB Nothing, we got nothing. Zero
so we just have to sleep we have nothing to do.
59:42 RH What are you going to eat this year?
AB they will be going to the towns, to work there, once they get something, they will bring back to feed those who are staying int he village
AB but here they can't get anything to eat, there is nothing in here.
WHO? Do they still have food storers available from last year
RH Do you still have food left over from last years harvest?
AB no they do not.
WHO? How big is this family?
who live here or who are in one family?
Who are in his family.
RH how many people live in this village?
AB930 in the village
RH so the crops that were destroyed, support were they for all 930 people
AB yes it is for all of them.
RH How long did it take you to dig the trenches? (whispering)
AB we are digging from 8-12, 3-6 pm
RH for how many days?
AB three days
RH were you able to kill a lot of hoppers with the trenches?
AB they dig there, for those are the long one, in each field, they dig over the field.
So there are many otheres in their own fields
RH so were you able to stop the hoppers with the trenches?
AB yes they stopped a lot. Thats only the pink ones, that are flying, that they can't fight off.
RH So they successfully stopped the hoppers, but in one hour the pink ones came and destroyed their crop?
AB they have a great hope this year in a very good year for harvesting, they had a very hope before the insects came and ate up everything.
RH Could I ask your name
1:04:27 My name is Amer de Sol.
My name is Amer bak la var
My name is Richard harris
Leo Carl Corenel Sombel, etc...
LEO? What language were you speaking or translating?
ABI was translating in Pular but sometimes it was wolof.
AB he told me to say you are their friend, from now on.
RH Thank you
well I think I understand,t hat they were successful....
the impact of the losses on the animals?
1:06:34 RH Do you have animals in this village too?
What effect does this have on the animals in the village?
AB 1:06:55 there is no pasture now, we will be having a problem of finding pasture land. For me and so on
1:07:08 RH Where are the animals right now
AB In the pasture lands
But they are starting moving away from this zone
RH will members of your village go with the animals to find better pasture?
1:07:31 AB Yes, they are moving
do you think the animals will survive?
It depends on gods will but they hope so.
(ambi 1:07:48 bird/cricket 1:08:07)
1:08:00 Ambi (children talking, wind in the trees, birds, coughing)