ML 161010


Environmental Recording :40 - 6:53 Play :40 - More
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Buenos Aires NWR ambiance  







Interview 17:21 - 1:27:22 Play 17:21 - More
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Cecil Schwalbe, John Burnett  






Frog research discussion. Includes frog and toad vocalizations in background.  

Great Plains Toad -- Anaxyrus cognatus 24:29 - 25:12 Play 24:29 - More
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1 Adult Male  




Same Species



Colorado River Toad -- Incilius alvarius 32:18 - 35:10 Play 32:18 - More
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1 Adult Female
1 Adult Male  


Sight and Sound




"Release call." Spea multiplicata is also vocalizing.  

Mexican Spadefoot -- Spea multiplicata 32:18 - 35:10 Play 32:18 - More
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1 Unknown  






Bufo alvarius is also vocalizing.  

Environmental Recording 45:50 - 48:47 Play 45:50 - More
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Buenos Aires NWR ambiance  






Includes frog and toad vocalizations.  

Environmental Recording 1:03:31 - 1:11:37 Play 1:03:31 - More
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Buenos Aires NWR ambiance  






Includes frog and toad vocalizations.  

NPR/NGS Radio Expeditions
19 Jul 2002

  • United States
    Pima County
  • Buenos Aires NWR
  • 31.55   -111.54994
  • Stereo
    Sampling Rate
  • 48kHz
    Bit Depth
  • 16-bit
    Equipment Note
  • Decoded MS stereo

Show: AZ frogs
Log of DAT #: 9
Engineer: Deputy
Date: July 19, 2002


00:40-6:55 - ambi - quiet, some frogs in bg, crickets¿.
2:29 some faint birds? Crickets
2:49 splash
3:25 good frog call (?)
4:11 good squeak
4:26 frog
4:46 frog
5;15 more frogs
6:30 - 6:55 talking in bg, some mic handling

6:56 walking with some off mic talking

7:29 CS -so I think we ought to set it down near the water's edge, so if they come in the area they might start calling too¿

7:41- 9:55 CD playing frog calls

9:56 CS - let's try out some cogs

10:19 switching CDs

10:35 - 13:20 diff frog calls on CD - good and irritating

13:21 waiting to hear a response¿

13:31 - frog call

14:27 - 16:07 another frog call on a CD

16:10 some calls in bg - NG

16:20 CS - in a whisper, and off mic - I think this will work it we get some weather

16:34 JB - they sure are a bunch of them out there though - the side of the pond is just lined with their eyes

16:44 CS - you see the weather conditions - if we had a little bit of misting rain

16:34 JB - there are sure a bunch of them out there though - the side of the pond is just lined with their eyes

16:42 CS - yeah. But you see - the weather conditions - if we had a little bit of misting rain - we got a little bit of response earlier on - the Great Plains Toad - that is the one that takes humans to the thresholds of pain, that is the one that wasn't calling here on Monday

JB - I love the way you say that - it takes humans to the thresholds of pain

17;02 CS - that why - I really wanted to hurt you guys - I really did!

JB - we wanted you to also

17:12 CS - I was really hoping you guys would be begging me for my ear plugs which I have

17:18 JB - well, while they are recatching, shall we stand right here and chat?

CS - that sounds like a good idea

19:10 JB - why do they call you the bullfrog hitman of the west?

19:14 CS - well, I have been called the bullfrog hitman of the west probably bc we have taken the bullfrog on in more places then anyone else this far west - we have tried to eliminate the bullfrog in areas of Arizona, and part of that moniker came from a 10 year failed attempt to remove bullfrogs from San Barindino (sp) NWR bc we basically underestimated the enemy. We didn't know the intensity that it would take to truly expunge the species from an area. Now 10 years later we have a better idea of how much effort it takes. We had the arrogance 15 yrs ago (car door slam in bg) to think that we could knock the bullfrog out by just catching the adults and leaving the young ones as garter snake food. Bc one of the effects of the bullfrog was the decline of the Mexican garter snake and the bullfrog is just - it has too many kids to feckon(?) it grows too fast to do that. And in complex wetlands you have this emigration and immigration to and from these places. So the only way to really get rid of them we believe now is to isolate individual ponds and to complete wipe out those ponds.

20:46 JB - tell me how in these desert areas you all have been trying to kill bullfrogs.

20:56 CS - we have used several methods to kill bullfrogs here in the desert areas of Arizona. We have tried gigging or spearing of them, handcatching, trapping them. Some of the most effective - recently we have gotten into basically fencing them into areas and then drying out the ponds they are in by pumping the water over the earthen dam of some of these ponds. And we create another pond then which the native amphibians used to breed in - while we can get in and remove all the bullfrogs that were there. And we timed that drying event to coincide with the natural annual dry season. Months of May and June in the Sonoran desert are the driest months of the entire year, and water levels in standing ponds are the lowest that they will be. And we go in, in May and June, and pump that water out of these ponds, get rid of the bullfrog - and then (JB - dry it out) - and dry it out. So that the frogs can't be stuck living down in the mud. We have emptied one pond of an estimated 1 million gallons in 1999 and another one estimated 3 million gallons and both of those ponds were completely full w/in 6 weeks bc the summer rains come and they fill right back up. So it is a very good method to use here in the arid west (JB - interrupts).

22:21 JB - ok, so as the bullfrog hitman of the west, how much impact do you think you have had on the bullfrog population in southern Arizona.

22:36 CS - here at Buenos Aires Natl Refuge, we have had quite an impact on the breeding populations of the bullfrogs in the southern part of the refuge. We have had no breeding on that part of the refuge since we have removed the bullfrogs in 1999. but since then we have also been measuring the immigration of bf back on the neighboring ranch lands. And that is the crux of the long term problem. What we need to do in a landscape level is to find out where all the source ponds are and then attack those one by one. And they can be eliminated in these dry areas.

23:21 JB - ok, I am going to switch to the amphibian project now. Let me just say this - less is better¿¿23:43 start with the giant picture. What is happen globally to amphibians.

23:51 CS - (some faint frog calls in bg) in the early 1990s there was the first worldwide concern that there might be a decline in amphibians world wide and that - when scientists would get together in these annual mtgs and discuss local problems and it became obvious that there might be this problem globally, there was about a decade of - 24:24 there was about a decade of controversy as to whether there were actually declines or not, bc some people claimed it was just part -

GREAT FROG CALL HERE - 24:31 that is the guy! That is the great plains toad that - a loan male calling - that is the one that will take humans to the threshold of pain

24:28 JB - if you hear it times 100

CS-if we get 100 of those calling here we could measure decibel level greater than 100 decibels from these calls. It would be great if others would chime in . we just are seeing a handful. But this is encouraging. You see they like the sound of the human voice apparently 25:06 actually several amphibians do respond the frequently levels in the human voice. And the mtn tree frog in Arizona is one that will often be at a site like this discussing strategy for the evenings work when we will start the frogs calling

25:27 JB - so, do they think we are competing males are something?

25:29 CS - I think so. They want to get in on the action. Well that was quite a surprise

25:36 CS - I think brent's recordings put some thoughts into his head. You see he played some tapes of that species and it - actually he was playing - he got a response to that - this was a better performance that he gave in response to the tape.

26:04 JB - so for how many yrs have scientists noticed amphibians decline around the world?

CS - basically since about the 1990s. it became a topic of discussion at these annual mtgs. In Arizona we noticed that the true frog family - the Tarhumara and the leopard frog we noted declines started back in the mid-80s and we sounded the alert. Just to show you just how controversial the potential declines were we had these regional mtgs in Arizona, New Mexico, Texas and Oklahoma. And only in Arizona in the mid-1980s were we seeing declines. And our declines were kind of poo-pooed by the folks in NM by saying we have got no problem there. W/in the next 5 years most of the population in NM had crashed. So we were just early on finding out there was a problem. Now we have concurrence; we realize there is a problem in the South West and that is kind of the way it went worldwide. We would have these mtgs and people would say they aren't having a problem and then all of a sudden they had a problem and then they are no longer nay-sayers. 27:20

JB - and tell me what some of the hypothesis are for why we are loosing -

27:27 CS - There have been several hypotheses. One of them - the 2 that you get agreement on from most herpetologists is the loss or degradation of habitats. Amphibians require wetlands and a lot of those habitats have been developed for other uses and so they are no longer available. The introduction of introduced predators is another major factor in many areas - like the bullfrog (JB talks over him) 27:58 bullfrogs are a perfect example here. In other areas it is crayfish or other sport fishes that have been introduced. There was some data in some regions that showed that - ultra violet radiation might be a problem but it doesn't seem to be as it seemed earlier on,; but it doesn't seem to be as wide a spread of a problem that some of the people thought earlier on. But it does seem to be possibly effecting some populations in some areas.

28:23 JB - Bc of climate change?

28:26 punitively. Possibly from that. But the fact is they measured responses of actually eggs - some eggs protected from ultra violet radiation faired much better from the one exposed to ambient radiation. It is still up in the air whether or not there really is an increase radiation load due to thinning of the ozone layer. But that is still a potential problem.

28:57 JB - So the main 2 reasons

(Dennis walking over to us to show frogs mating)

29:06 CS - amplexus - ok and that is - and see - different families - these have pelvic amplexus - they are holding them down on their hips -

JB - will you describe what you see here?

29:19 CS - these are 2 Mexican spade foots in amplexus - and amplexus is how they describe copulation (Dennis' heavy breathing can be heard here) in toads and frogs - and in that the male grasps the female, either about the waist which they call pelvic amplexus, or by the shoulders which they call pectorial amplexus. (frogs can be heard) they are actually giving Dennis here a release call saying please release me! No, that's a country western song we can't go into here, but they will actually stay in amplexus for several hours and in most anurans (anurans is just a fancy word for amphibians w/out tails) and that is a quick way to describe all frogs and toads and they -

JB - oops!

30:11 CS - and they will sometimes be in amplexus for several hours and most fertilization for frogs and toads is external. In otherwords the male doesn't penetrate and put the sperm into the female, but rather when the female lays the eggs, the male puts the sperm on them (good frogs in bg)

30:34 JB - ok, we have something else happening here

30:38 CS - ok, these are Colorado river toads, also called the Sonoran River toad and this is the largest toad we have in the southwest and this is a male and female in amplexus - and you will notice here - we just looked at the spade foots and they had pelvic amplexus. Look at here they are grabbing up under the armpits. 30:57

31:13 CS - here - this is a great example of the difference in amplexus, and usually it is a family characteristic - you know, most of all the spade foots use pelvic amplexus and the most of the toads used pectoral. Now this is great! Now the Colorado River Toad - the huge toad - we have seen them amplex with toads or other inanimate objects for hours. And we have reported that they have been hooked up for 24 hrs at a time, but then when they finally - 31:47 and we don't know exactly what the cues are btwn the male and the female, but the female sometimes - they will carry the male along on their back for a long time, and then finally she will hope down to the water and lay the eggs and the male will put - extrude the sperm on to the eggs in the water. 32:08

JB - I don't want to anthropomorphize - but she seems to be enjoying it Cecil!

CS - 32:11 I can't tell if it is a smile or a grimace!

Aaron - you see the toxins all over my hand?

32:19 - good frog calls - some shifting around -

VG 32:35 - 34:22 release calls in one ear and another frog call form the other side

33:23 another frog call chimes in

34:22 JB - ok

34:30 CS - the high pitch chuckling call here - that is the release call of the Colorado River Toad, and the male is probably making that call bc he is being gripped - the female is probably liking it. sometimes if she is not in the mood she will have a release call too. But the call you here in the background that sounds like running your finger across a plastic pocket comb, that is the call of the Mexican spade foot, and that is a single frog call. If you can imagine 100 or 200 of those in a small pond - it is an amazing chorus.

35;11 Jb - now we are standing here in this pond in the moonlight and we are hearing the sounds of amphibian love making all around us - is this a pretty healthy habitat for amphibians? Are things going ok here?

35:27 CS We think so - (clear throat) the reason we say we think so is we actually have no methods in place to monitor the status of these desert breeding amphibians bc they are quite difficult to get a grip on. So the purpose of this project is to develop methods so that we can answer that question in a few years.

JB - And why is that an important question to ask? Why is it important to know how the frog and toad population is doing down here in these ponds in southern Arizona.

36:07 CS - bc the alarm has been sounded over the global decline of amphibians we believe we being herpetologists around the world - believe it is important to try and determine the status of our amphibians in all areas, and bc of the difficulty in monitoring these desert amphibians which only are up above the ground in a very short time in the wet rainy season in the summer, we are trying to learn methods to determine how well they are doing so we can come back in 10 years and ask how well are they doing - has their been a decline or not. So that is what we are trying to use a bunch of different methodologies. Here we are trying to do a population estimate of some of these calling populations to determine how many frogs are really here and then we can use that to compare to some of these other indexes that we get from other methods.

37:10 JB - say it again ! why is it important how the frog and toad population is doing around these ponds in southern Arizona

37:44 CS - it is important bc there is this concern - our national US level included, to determine whether there are declines occurring in these amphibians throughout the country. Frankly we just don't have methods yet to determine that in this vast area in the western US where we have many species of these desert-breeding amphibians but we don't have methods yet to determine whether there are changes - whether there are declines or increases or whether they are holding their own.

JB - And why is it so hard to study these desert amphibian species.

38:25 CS - there are several reasons. One of the primary reasons is the difficulty in getting teams of biologists to breeding sites to study the toads bc the breeding sites are only there for such a brief period of time. Some of these desert amphibians can go from an egg through the tadpole stage into a young spade foot in less than 2 weeks. 38:50 and we are talking about much of the entire western US - and that is a massive area, so we are going to have to devise some sampling methods where we can go in and sample some areas in a region and then infer from those data how they are doing in the region - and that is what we are working on.

39:14 JB - And so what is the life of this breeding pond. How long will this pond be here

39:23 CS - some studies we have done in other valleys in Arizona have shown great site fidelity for some of these breeding sites. Some of the spadefoots and toads in eastern the same major breeding sites were being used in the early 1990s that were being used in the early 1970s and first studied in the 1950s.

JB - what I am getting at - is how many weeks or months will this pond be wet and permit the life cycle of these amphibians?

40:02 CS - the ponds where these toads and spadefoots breed in the desert can last from only 2 weeks and still have little frogs and toads come out of it or they can last for several months. The larger ones like this probably have a life expectancy of several months, and then the tadpoles will stay in the water longer here bc it is to the benefit of the tadpole to be as big as it can be when it gets out and , but, better that you are small and out of the water if the water dries up - and so it is a great desert adaptation - it is amazing to watch - it is almost like time-lapse photography right before your very eyes 40:43

JB - how so?

40:47 CS - bc youa re used to seeing these bf taspoles up near Canada might take 3 yrs before they metamorphose into a young frog. Here you have a spade foot that goes from an egg 14 days later it is hoping out on land. You can go and just daily look at these changes in these tadpoles. So it is really a great telescopic way of just viewing these populations

41:15JB - bc water is so short lived in the desert they can't waste time

CS - that is exactly right. And it is amazing. Bc many people think of the arid west as a place that wouldn't have many amphibians in it at all, and people are stunned to find out that we have about 30% of all frogs and toads in the US here in Arizona. And it is bc of some of the very successful desert breeding toads and spadefoots - they get in, and lay their eggs, and have tadpoles and they get out and are gone. And it is extremely successful. 41:54

41;54 JB - I am going to ask you to go back in time to when you used to go hunting and fishing with your dad, and when you fell in love with these critters, and what it is about coming out here on a night like this under a moon in the cool night like this by this pond that still excites you.

42:27 CS - I have never been able to figure out exactly why, but it is still the same thrill and it goes back to that stage when I was a kid and I guess I have always innately been a biologist, but it took me 30 yrs find out that I could make a living at that - and it is rewarding to me to be out and looking at the natural history - not only the amphibians but at the world around them. As you drove in tonight you saw the thousands of winged ants and termites that were flying in our headlights and that is a phenomena of the outset of the summer rains and that is also the primary food of these spade foots - they come up - they hear the sound of these rains and they come up and they breed and then on rainy nights for the next month or 2 they are out trying to eat as many of those insects as they can. Bc they only have that 2 month period to get enough food to carry them through 10 months under ground waiting for next month's rain.

43:24 JB - would you try to describe the whole life cycle - the 10 months in the ground, so that people can understand that what we are listening to tonight - was hibernating under the desert sound for 10 months of the year.

43:46 CS- many people from wetter areas from the country or from around the world have difficulty understanding the life cycle of these desert toads and spade foots bc the spade foots spend most of their life underground, buried from approx anywhere to a foot to 3 feet underground waiting, each year for the onset of the summer rains, and they actually respond to the sound of a down pour - not the water. They don't sense the water. They hear the sound of a downpour - of a drenching rain - and they come out - and they breed usually that night, and then they are above ground on rainy nights usually for the next month or 2 trying to eat enough insects to carry them 10 more months underground. Bc at the end of that 2 months above ground, they bury down in and they just sit there and wait for the rains come the next july. And there are some areas in western Arizona where we know that they do that for 22 months - 2 years! - they will be underground, bc there has been no rain in the intervening year. And it is hard to phantom, and it is one reason it is so exciting to come to these ponds which have been baked - the temperature has been 104 degrees for 20 straight days before this and then all of the sudden you get a rain - and then right in this pond - just 4 days ago we estimated there where 1000 individual spade foots and toads. And there are some places where there are estimates of 10,000 - in a given pond - up to 7 species breeding together - it is just a phenomenon, once you experience it you will never forget it. 45:36

45:50 recording sound in area - lots of frog calls

46:06 great call -

47:50-48:50 great calls - you can hear some of the frogs thrashing in the sacks¿..

50:07 more calls in the area

50:33 CS - spade foots are a different family from the toads - the toad family and the spade foot family all have spades on their feet which they use to dig with -

JB - is a spade foot a toad?

CS - no. a spade foot is a diff family - all of these amphibians that we are talking about tonight all lump together in the family called frogs. But toads are a separate family - more terrestrials than most of the aquatic frogs - they have wartier skin. - spade foots also have a somewhat warty skin

JB - oh - that is very confusing - so these are all frogs, and under that you have spade foots and toads¿

51:28 CS - we have spade foots, toads - we have the true frogs which are usually the leopard frogs - bullfrogs tarhumara frogs - it is somewhat confusing, we also have the little thing called the narrow mouth toad family here -¿¿..(talking about this frog) 51:55 I think in an earlier life I was a narrow mouth toad - it has a little pea brain and a little triangular head they are quite comical looking.

Jess - what is the best way to describe what is in this pond?

52:19 CS - well, frogs is the most general way to cover all of the hoping amphibians so -

JB - it is a froggy pond

CS - it is a froggy pond

Jess - what is it that makes the eyes of these frogs shine

CS - basically red eye - the reflection off of the retina

JB - ¿.are their other animals that create such a loud decibel sound out of such a small vocal area - is this a like a leader?

53;20 CS - some of the insects do - like cicadas

53:55 JB - so is this one of the loudest in the frog world?

CS - I can't answer that - by the far the loudest in the southwest 54;01

JB - give me a quick description on how it gets so much noise out of this little-bitty frog throat

54:18 CS - a lot of it has to do with the pitch and the frequency - I can't give you a really good answer to that - a lot of these frogs have this trilling call like the great plains toad that screech-the red spotted frog also a constant call¿.have a lot of energy to them - I haven't studied them enough to give you an answer

54:56 JB - so, are conservationists alarmed that the leopard frog and the tarahumara frog which are indigenous to southern Arizona are disappearing?

55:04 CS - yes, the Tarahumara frog was one of the first in the US to be noted - bc the last - 55:21 yes, scientists are concerned about essentially all species of the leopard frogs in southern Arizona and the Tarahumara frog bc they are all in serious decline - their historical ranges have decreased in every case and in the case of the Tarahumara frog - it no longer occurs in the US. The last Tarahumara frog was found in 1983 and it appears to be doing well in parts of Mexico but it appears to be gone form Arizona and will not come back on its own unless it is reintroduced by humans - unless there is an extended new ice-age

JB - that is loud!

56:05 CS - that is a single call. Now what is this guy calling to the desert now - there must be another body of water over there. That is pretty cool. But still we are talking about only 3 frogs doing this. Can you imagine a 100 of them in an area - in a pond 15 feet across?

56:20 - good calls

JB - it seems like when one starts then another starts and then another starts - do they riff of each other?

56;40 CS - it is the male testosterone thing - I better start calling loud if I am going to get the fair ladies

VG 56:55-58:45 frogs calling

JB - can you tell me why are these frogs vocalizing tonight


58:55CS -
they're saying that these are males that haven't probably bred as much as they wantd this season and they're advertising tha they're ready - we're only hearing about 3 of these mexicna spadefoots around us. But if it would start to rain, we caugh t103 of those on Monday night here, and we estimated that itw as probably less than half. We undersmapled that species because they cll from out in the water. These different toads, these spadefoots that are here divvy up the breeding area, and so that's the way you have so many species breeding in a single pond.

describe that for me

the Mexican spadefoot, which we're hearing now, it's one where the male gets out in the water and is floating and calling, and that's a difficult one to get pictures of, because when you're wading it reads your waves and stops calling. Another one that calls form out in the water, the very large toad that we're seeing, the Colorado river toad, it's one that also breeds and calls from the water. In contrast, the cauccha spadefoot which we're seeing tonight but not hearing calling, they call from shallow water, and so you'll find them when they're sitting on the ground, half submerged in water calling for the females. That is the piercing call we're hearing there is the great plains toad and it usually calls from the shore, near water, so already they're divvying up the terf so they can all ge together and get in the water, if they weren't already there.. but as many as seven different species can get together in a single desert pond if the conditions are right.

piercing call

and how many species are we hearing tonight?

we've heard three species calling tonight, but we've seen four species.

I know this has been asked before, but do they tend to call like a section of an orchestra, the cauchas, the Colorado river toad, and hten the plains..?

sometimes it sounds like they're orchestrating it, it's kind of cyclic. Sometimes, one species tend to get going, but they're not taking turns.

I don't mean that there's the grand conductor, but literally, is it this species turn, this species turn..?

sometimes, but sometimes not. I think not, as a general pattern.

mainly it's just the volume, they want to hear us and not everybody else.

but they recognize their species call. A lot of this din is white noise to them, and they hear their species call over all others. And that's quite handy. Because then it would be very difficult to know wher ethey ones you're trying to mate with are

piercing call

now you hear the two species together, you hear the call like rubbing your finger on a comb, of the Mexican spadefoot, then the more piercing screech is the great plains toads, so we have just a handful of these two species calling.

I want you, I want you, yes.. that's what he's saying, if there are any great plains toads in the area, I'm here. Thumbs up.

ambi of several frogs calling

plains toad stops

1:04:21 -1:08:17
ambi of toads calling sans piercing

1:08:17 -1:11:11
continued ambi

piercing call

? thunder ?

what is that light?

it's like a black light but a little more intense

last year we injected them with florescence, and so it helps us see their marks..

(talking about markings)

the schwabe marking table.. patented.. (chuckles)

these are fogging lights that help us see things on the road..

1:14:13 JB
so what are y'all looking for?

we're seeing if we can see a glowing dot of color under their arms or legs, because that's where we injected the elasmus material.

is it a florescent dye?

it's florescent, but it's not a dye. It hardens and so it doesn't move, doesn't get into the bloodstream. Like this guy he's got a little mark under his arm. So in his..

plains toad call

what does this tell you about this frog?

well it tells me that he's a recapture. And we'll come back here and look at him again, check for the same mark, take measurements on him - because there is no other mark like this.

why is it important?

we can get history information - how long they grow, how long they're living..

1:15:47 JB
it's not giving you a population count in any way?

well if we do this repetitively, over and ove,r we can get an idea of how many are actually at these sites and similar sites like this, so we can make estimates. You can see it.. the upper arm, underneath? I don't see any othermarks though, which is fine, because there is just that mark.. and he is letting all sorts of toxin on me?

have you ever gotten sick, accidently, from this toxin?

I got a cut on my hand and I've been collecting these guys at night, but I've never had a problem.

if we wanted to get something statistical we'd have to have a larger reference

release call

we're just searching his body parts, his limbs, because we only inject into limbs - namely, the forearm, the upper arm, the lower leg, and upper leg, on both the right and left side - and we were just scouting him out to see if we saw anything. Let's see the various first becaue they're on top of eachother..

here we have an orange mark on the left upper arm, and on the right.. it's 23R6L. I'm sorry, I did that wrong. It's 3R and 6R, and the numbers just represent the different placements on the body, and the letter stands for the color. This is upper arm, left, red, upper arm right, red. Cecil, the other bag's hanging off your light, if you hold it I can drop these guys right in. and we marked over 40 Colorado River toads at this tank. So far out of the two we've looked at, they've both been marked. I don't' see anything¿
slow down¿ so here we have an unmarked individual. We'll bag him - he gets to go back to his friends here shortly. Nothing¿ nothing. Okay, another unmarked. Exhale, exhale. Another unmarked. (slides into bag) seee anything? Nope? Unmarked. Another unmarked.

what did bufo refer to?

it's the latin word for toad. And bufo bufo was the first one named in that family, it's a European toad, the original toad.

you've got to mjch tirght there
they're both, let's look for another mark.
You think those are both for the lower leg? Or upper leg.. see how its? Looks like two separate¿

this one is.. 1, 2¿ R11? Yep
11R¿ okay
go ahead and put him in .. okay, little lady. And it's looking like this little girl does not. (bagging sounds)

what's the ratio so far? About 33 percent.. there are a lot more toads out there than we thought.

okay, so this one is the right forearm¿ hold it again?

2 R¿ 9 R? yup.. still trying to remember the counts.

gotta be a male.. nope, all right, another unmarked. And we have one more.

this is a young one. Here we go. So that's¿ that is 8.
And 12.
8R 12R.. okay, these are ready for releasing.
So 50%

so we'll have to work with some folks and see what kind of effort we had.

(talk about setting up release)


yips, coming and going, amidst other croaks

watery sounds¿ sploshes of footsteps¿ yips

piercing call, very loud

yips continue

piercing stops, starts repeatedly from here ¿

little splash


do you love these little guys?

1:26:28 CS
I do. I just love coming out and just learning what they do. I love to photograph of these at night, when theyr'e calling or in amplexis. Amphibian photography at night is fantastic, because they're not shy.. I had almost all of the amphibians in Arizona in amplexis, but most of them got burned up in a house fire ¿ (fading in and out).. the heart of my field activity and stuff¿

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