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Environmental Recording 51:03 - 53:41 Play 51:03 - More
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Interview 1:02:30 - 1:39:15 Play 1:02:30 - More
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Varied Thrush -- Ixoreus naevius 1:39:16 - 1:40:53 Play 1:39:16 - More
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Landmark trees; Richard Carstensen  

NPR/NGS Radio Expeditions
21 Jul 1998

    Geography
  • United States
    Alaska
    Sitka County
    Locality
  • Chichagof Island; Tenakee Inlet
    Latitude/Longitude
  • 57.83389   -135.42056
    Channels
  • Stereo
    Sampling Rate
  • 48kHz
    Bit Depth
  • 16-bit
    Recorders
    Microphones
  • Sennheiser MKH 40
  • Sennheiser MKH 30
    Accessories
    Equipment Note
  • Stereo=1; Decoded MS stereo

NPR/NGS RADIO EXPEDITIONS
Landmark Tree
DAT 2
Sept 21, 1998
reporter: Chris Joyce

MS recording system with MKH 30 and MKH 40 stereo mike pair in furry zeplin

sitting around camp site at upper tenakee inlet - 5:30pm - talking about bear etiquette

3:33 Cj - we are sitting in a little anchorage on a stone beach in upper tenakee ¿.

3:44 RC - we are about smack tab in the middle of chichagof island. Tenakee inlet is a very long glacial fjord that penetrates right into the center of chichagof, and we are on a rocky almost island btwn 2 salt marshes that are at the mouths of inlets that flow into upper tenakee inlet. And we have chosen this beach bc it doesn¿t seem to be right in the middle of the bear activity around here which focuses on the river mouths. The bears use the sedges in the spring and then they probably shift into salmon right now and this sight isn¿t too close to either one of those things. What we want is a nice comfortable camp where we aren¿t listening for crunching noise all night and close access to this landmark stand I think we can find tomorrow. 4:43

4:44 cj - from here - where do we go tomorrow to find the stand? And how big do you think the stand is and how did you pick it?

4:55 RC we picked it mostly from air photos and I had heard from some friends in tenakee that there are some really big trees back here, but the place that we are going to visit - I haven¿t talked to anyone that has actually been in there before. We tried to make it in last year with a high school group and got turned back by a river that was too deep to cross. This year we will bring a raft and hope to paddle across. The air photos looking through this little 3-d viewer we can judge the size of trees - their height - looks like a little terrain model 5;28 - and I think we will hike about a mile through more typical southeast alaskan old growth and open peet land. Hopefully we won¿t be doing too much thrashing in the brush. That will take us over about a 200 foot rise and then we will drop into a river bottom and then we can maybe get across that by fording or maybe have to use sam¿s raft. And from there it should be too far to this patch of trees. 6:01

6:02 - CJ you can see it hear - on the USGS map that shows elevations - and then you can compare that to what you see in the stereoscopic viewer and compare the 2 and give yourself and give yourself a fabulous eeler of where you are - let me have a look - as well as the amount of trees

6:28 RC - yeah, you can pick out individual trees from that - that is a low elevation true-color shot taken from a mile or so up

CJ - and I can see at the bottom here - that is where the delta is - it has got some streams running through the middle of¿it is kind of cloudy - is that muskeg?¿¿¿¿¿¿.7:08 can you tell from looking in here where we are going to go?

7:11 RC - that particular image shows where we are camped and the beginnings of our hike tomorrow¿.

7:23 Cj - by combining this and this you get a really good image of where we are going and what the terrain is like

SK - oh yeah - you just want to strap those on your head and walk around all day - they actually allow you to - the beauty of using the stereoscopic slides is that you might normally just look at the topographic map and say - I don¿t know if I really want to do that - that looks pretty rough, and the you look at the stereoscopic and see that gee it is only going to be rough for 300 400 feet and then you get into the bog - it is pretty hard to tell that from a topo - you can tell elevation change but it changes your whole way of walking around out here -

CJ - you can actually see the vegetation ¿.

SK - MORE ON USING THE SLIDES - ¿8:24 not only is it great for looking for LMT, it is great for travel¿..it is great for being out - probably have less people lost if they used those. 8:39

8:40 RC - it works both ways though. Sometimes it lures me back into country I never would have thought of visiting and it is not always as straight forward as on the stereo slides.

8:55 CJ - what is the bear protocol when you are camping out at place like this?

9:06 RC - we like to let them know we are coming. We make a fair amount of noise, and that varies. Sometimes it feels unnecessary to make noise. For instance when we are going through the peet land tomorrow, if we don¿t see a lot of sign - that is not a really productive habitat. It is not a place that attracts bears. It is not a place to forage nearly as much as the salmon streams and the sedge marshes and we might kind of relax there, especially if the wind is at our back and blowing our scent ahead of us - (CJ - you want the bears to smell you - ) - yeah that is the ideal situation - when it is on your back - you can¿t always do that of course - 9:46 - the times when we especially need to make noise is when it is thick and we think we are in places where there are bears concentrated - where there is a lot of food or that looks like a major travel route.

9:56 CJ - well in places that there is food, what kind f vegetation would that be?

RC - along the stream tomorrow we will prob be running into brush thickets and very tall meadows up around your chest and a beded bear could be right next to you and you wouldn¿t know it - you wouldn¿t want to wake one up too close 10:14

10:16 SS - that¿s the protocol -there are a couple of things - you don¿t want to startle a bear, you don¿t want to - you want to give them a scent if you can - this is sort of their home and we are visiting. And so we treat them w/ a lot of respect and you don¿t want to crowd them - and we stay together - it is important that we - if we do see a bear - if we present a large 5 people front and wave our arms so they know that we are around

10:50 - CJ - make noise?¿

SS - we aren¿t going to be jumping up and down but just saying - hey bears -we are here - we are going to pass on through¿stay calm, don¿t run - that is the basic thing

CJ - what happens if you run?

SK - that¿s prey - prey runs away from a bear, so they might think you are something to eat then¿but at the same time you don¿t walk right up either - you back up or you go to the side

11:32 RC - in a lot of ways you can treat a bear in a lot of ways the way you would treat an aggressive dog - you wouldn¿t want to run from an aggressive dog - you would want to stand your ground

11:47 RC - we are both carrying riffles ¿

SK - they are the last resort

12:00 RC - this is my hunting riffle - I hunt deer with this - most people in SE Alaska use a riffle to hunt deer that is big enough to deal w/ bear bc when you are in bear country whenever deer hunting 12:14

12:24 RC - this is a 338 - very large caliber riffle, kind of considered a bear gun¿the scope is prob a drawback for a bear encounter, but it is a very low-power scope so I have a wild field of view

CJ - have you had to use it against a bear?

12:47 RC - no - hope I never do

SS - no - I have had bear look at me, stand up on the hind legs - trying to get an idea of what we are, turn around and run away - if we see a bear , the protocol is if you see a bear and it stands up that¿s fine, it is just trying to get an idea of who you are and if it then though starts bobbing around and you can see its ears lay back down and it starts to cough a little bit then we need to get out of there bc it is feeling threatened - and I have never had that happen to me, I have just talked to people that where that has happened to them. Pretty much with these bears are - they are not used to people, they are not garbage bears - richard, you were telling me last time there are 2 diff types of encounters¿

14:03 RC - animal behaviorists use 2 terms that relate to bear people relations - habituation and food conditioning, and a lot of people tend to use the word habituated in the wrong sense - habituation is a lessening response to a non-threatening encounter, so if a bear is around people repetitively and nothing serious happens¿¿HE GOES ON ABOUT THIS¿..talks about food conditioning¿..

15:18 CJ - when we hike tomorrow, what other kind of other wild life might we be able to see tomorrow?

15:24 RC - it is pretty easy - almost on 2 hands you can list the mammals you can find on this island - brown bear, no black bear, sitka deer which is almost universal on the mainland and all the islands of se alaska (following is no good for a few sec bc of velcro noise) no other hoofed animals, no other large predators, there is no wolf here, no coyote, no members of the cat family, members of the weasel family are pretty well represented - the weasel, the mink, the marten, the river otter, hardly any large rodents - there is no porcupine here, we may see beaver sign - beaver sparsely distributed over chichagof island

16:11 CJ and when it comes to trees -

RC - sitka spruce and western hemlock are the 2 dominant trees in our old growth we may in the bogs see a few other species like lodge poll pine, yellow cedar, mtn hemlock, but when we get into the patch of big trees tomorrow I expect that it will be mostly spruce and a little bit of hemlock

CJ - both in the flora and the fauna there¿s a lot of uniformity - I guess there is not a lot of diversity - is that a function of latitude, a function of climate - what is that?

RC - 16:58 we have a shared biome with northern california, washington, OR, BC, and southeastern alaska - we could call it the temperate rainforest biome, and it has many shared characteristics, but as you go north through that biome species tend to drop out - western red cedar we don¿t have here, yellow cedar we have here but it is petering out and we wouldn¿t find it much further north from here (bad mike handling noise). In some ways there is a lot of diversity here but you have to look at other things than species. For instance, if you went down to the next level and looked at sub species of mammals, there are more endemic or special or locally evolved sub species of mammals on the tongass than there are in any other national forest¿.17:57 - unique sub species of beaver, marten, possibly otter, flying squirrel, long tail vole, things that have been out on these islands since the ice melted away 14,000 yrs ago and have had enough time for sub speciation but have not become new species.

18:20 CJ - when people think of rainforest they often think of tropical rainforest where you have an amazing diversity - and I am wondering when you are trying to get across the idea (plane in bg) that this is our rainforest¿¿¿PLANE¿¿ 21:06 when people think of rainforest they think of tropical rainforest they think of a riot of insects and snalkes, birds - at the same time this is our rainforest - the temperate rainforest - it can¿t compare - so how to you get people to understand that there is great value in it and great diversity and uniqueness when it kind of ¿¿.PLANE¿¿..23:00 CJ asks question again¿.this last take is the best one - how do you get people to appreciate what we have in this northern type of rainforest

23:34 RC - that is very true, as you go north up the pacific coast diversity declines, so we are not really very diverse compared o WA and OR, and the temperate rainforest of the north is much less diverse than the tropical rainforest. There are a couple of exceptions with that - one is mosses. As you go north into alaska from northern california the moss diversity increases - maybe that doesn¿t turn on too many people except biologists who are specialists in mosses - but it excites me - but mosses¿¿.MORE ON THIS¿.. 24:23 another thing about these habitats in the north is the habitat mosaic is really rich. As you go north up the pacific coast the timber line lower so all that alpine meadow is much closer to the sea coast as it is in BC or definitely WA and OR. There is so much rain here that wetlands are everywhere and we will see that tomorrow - we will go through a delightful mosaic of forest, bog, fin, salt marsh - we will be going back and forth btwn habitats that are subtly and sometimes strikingly diff and that kind of habitat actually increases as you go north where as WA and OR at least pre-logging WA and OR where uniformly blanketed with coniferous forest - of course now you have a diff kind of diversity in the pacific northwest - you have post-logging stands of many diff ages 25:31

25:32 CJ - well, that is hardly something that is going to attract tourists and eco-tourists and people that want to see what little there is to see of temperate rainforests

25:44 SS - what I think brings people here is the diversity - I don¿t know - you kind of get into this thought that lots of diversity is therefore better and I - if more species then it has to be a better ecology¿¿..what the beauty here is large mammals, brown bear - large salmon - kings, cohoes, clean, pristine streams flowing out of these alluvial fans and big trees, and we could add in the glaciers and the hanging glaciers and the tidewater glaciers but that is not what we are sitting at right now - we are sitting at - to me - diverse enough to support that type of life - large mammals and fish and plant life but easy enough to comprehend - in that way it is almost - it is a dream for me bc I can¿t learn more than 4 or 5 plants anyway - and here I can learn 5 or 6 and they can see them over and over again and you really get to understand one environment really well - so I think people will come not just for the beauty but for the - to see the large animals but also the remoteness here even though we have airplanes flying over and fishing boats coming in is still a real chance to understand an environment and be in an environment without ever having to be totally swallowed up by it - the rainforest - the tropical rainforest to me sounds like it will just swallow you up whereas here you can roam you can walk - you can get to the top of that peak right there in 3 or 4 hours and be standing above tree-line with the whole world below you. that is pretty exciting to me - and I think people will come for that - they do come for that

28:50 RC - we are at the head of tenakee inlet and we are looking across a low pass into the head of port fredrick which is another larger fjord which penetrates chichagof island from icy straight to the north - we are looking into real heavy logging country - there is quite a few clear cuts in sight. It is a very narrow pass. It is occasionally used as a portage by kayakers. You can begin a trip inhoonah and paddle about 20 miles and carry your boat over real narrow portage and put in and finish up in tenakee - it is about a 60 mile trip 29:30

CJ - looking at clear cuts - why are those particular places cut and then lower down you see a lot of trees that haven¿t been cut. It is not random is it?

29:47 RC - no - those clearcuts are all accessed by a road. There is a log transfer facitlity over at ??? and that road system is pretty well laced through the opp side of ten inlet - they will do repeated entries, they call it along that road. They have cut a fair amount of what we are seeing and eventually cut over hundreds of yrs cut almost all of it - however prob the intent is to leave an intact buffer along the coast there. We also can see farther downthe inlet there a clearcut that extends right into the water. The vegetation is further dev. Onthat one that these fresh ones along the road system - that clearcut prob dates back to the mid `60s - 30 yrs ago they did what was called A-frame logging where they pulled in a barge w/a - BOAT - 31:27 - there are 2 diff eras of clearcut that we are seeing. There is an earlier type that was logged from the beach they would pull a barge in and tie it down and have a large A-frame structure that allowed them to cable logs out of the woods directly on into the water. That dates back to the mid-60s. then there is another fresher series of clearcuts beyond that that are accessed by road that begin by port frederick¿¿.those logging roads lace through quite a bit of the country¿¿.32:37 I think that is alder - apparently that area was quite disturbed when they pulled the logs out of there and it is also steep - rain washing down over that slope and rock slides have kept that area unstable enough that spruce has not come in very well -that is pretty common in tenakee inlet to see alder capturing a site like that 33:04

SS - that is a good 3 miles of beach there that has been logged in the 60s up to about 500 feet or so (RC)

CJ - and that will always be alder?

RC - it will be alder for another several decades at least. Alder does not replace itself under its own canopy. It needs a lot of sun and a lot of mineral soil exposed. So it colonizes disturbance - so an alder tree that is over 100 yrs old is a real old timer here - so it will eventually come up in spruce and hemlock, but from the point of view of going back in there and cutting again - that has retarded the rotation it will be a long time before you can cut spruce in there.

33:58 CJ - the rotation meaning ¿.how many yrs until you can cut spruce again?

34:07 RC - oh, they are talking about 100 yrs here - on a site like that it could be longer -

CJ - what is old growth - when people talk about old growth it is a vague term - what exactly is it?

34:21 RC - that is a question that a lot of people are asking in the forest service¿.to feel that old growth maybe has too much meaning laden on to it that it kind of reduces the meaning of the term. I think this happens a lot when we pick up a scientific term and move it into the kitchens across america

CJ - it becomes an emotional term

RC - yeah - war cry - and that is kind of dangerous - a lot of forest that we are looking at is not true old growth in every sense of the word¿.much of this forest that we are looking at is a result of major wind storms that blew down whole mtn sides and we call that a blow down. And it will come back in almost pure hemlock. The trees will be densely packed. The canopies will be tight together and it could be like that for 150 - 200 yrs

35:49 SS - I think that is why some of those stands we call landmark stands are ancient forests is another name for them but they maybe anywhere from 150 to 400 years old so that is where it kind of blurs - how old is old? Is 150 is 200 yrs is 300 yrs ¿..

CJ - but at this point - nobody is really able to say exactly what is old growth which makes it rather difficult to tell the people who are saying well let¿s cut it down if you can¿t define what it is you don¿t know what it is doesn¿t it make it more diff to defend it?

36:36 RC - classic old growth is unevened aged, it has trees of many diff sizes the canopy is not all at the same level and it tends to let more light in through gaps then an even aged forest. It has a lot of dead wood in it both on the ground - logs covered over with mosses that are nurse logs for younger trees, standing snags that have woodpecker holes in it that becomes flying squirrel houses. A mosaic of many diff kinds of understory. A patch of blueberry that a deer can eat in the wintertime in a gap and then near it a place with a strong dev/ of hemlock in sub-canopy that helps to intercept snow and a place where deer can go in the winter. Structurally very diverse. 37:36. So that has all the features of old growth and let¿s say it is on a site that hasn¿t had a stand replacing disturbance where a stand is maybe wiped out for maybe a thousand years

CJ - a thousand?

RC - it is not - it is prob just a fraction of what we see on the side of tenakee inlet is forest of that type but it is out there

38:02 SS - so that describes old growth - that is one description of old growth

CJ - that is about as specific as I have ever heard - and that you can find that - you are not describing an ideal hypothetical

RC - oh no - we will show it to you tomorrow

SS - we will show it to you we will walk through it 38:20 - interesting thing on diversity that I have learned from richard is that you go in there in the alder in spring time and if I am not mistaken there will be lots of song birds and other migrating birds then you would normally find bc it has been cut and now it is alder - so there is some talk you are increasing the diversity by logging - I don¿t know. That is why if you are just going to add up numbers and call this a more diverse ecosystem and therefore and make a judgment that is better I think that is a dead end kind of argument. but that is true,isn¿t it richard - you have great habitat for birds here -

39:33 RC - most of the forest that we are looking at on the far side of tenakee inlet is probably replaced by a major disturbance every few centuries but especially in pockets that are in the lee slopes where blow down essentially never happens in a little protected valley maybe. You can have forests here in the tongass that go without a major disturbance for a thousand years. maybe more. So you have forests with multi-generations. One tree comes down forms a nurse log for another tree, sits there rotting for another 100 years and it just goes on that way for centuries. 40:26 and that is really rare we are pretty much free of forest fires in the tongass¿.but on a lot of the tongass fire is not a factor in stand replacement. Blow down is but you can have these protected places on the lee slopes that aren¿t blown down either. If you go back to the pacific northwest to WA and OR and up about as far north as Vancouver Is. At least every 500 years you will have a major forest fire. Douglas fir is a fire tree when you go north of the range of dougals fur you have left the range of fire. And you have gotten into a place where you can have sites that go undisturbed for millennia 41:27

41:29 SS - now that we are out here - if you start to stare at the hillsides and imagine what the forest would look like where there is now alder and you start to see we picked these areas bc there are some pretty large trees, which would be representative of what was here prior to the logging. So that what we are looking for is the rarest of the rare. We are looking for what that description of richard says is old growth it has this unique stand structure that provides for a variety of habitats for critters and insects and all types of life and that¿s - we don¿t have an idea of what percentage of the tongass that is left is landmark quality. 42:44

47:00 SS - why am I here? I use the term disequilibrium as a way of describing why I love alaska - and I guess to clarify that - you are always learning. When you are out in the environment here - it is not very forgiving, if you make a major mistake and yet it is enchanting in that you are always a little bit on the edge. 47:40 how you make decisions and your judgment is really critical. And being in an environment where you are always a little bit looking over your shoulder for bears or weather or something that is out there that will equalize the playing field real fast - that is really make me feel really alive - an element of risk - also that you are always learning - no 2 days are alike - on the water or in the woods, and so you always got that sense of discovery that I think comes with being a little bit - having your equilibrium off

49:03 CJ - when talking about LMT - talking about bits and pieces of what used to exist - in a way it is sort of like archeology. You are looking for relics.

SS - I hope it is not too much of a relic, but we don¿t know yet. We might surprise ourselves and find thousands of acres of these - so far we have found¿what is the largest stand size was 100 acres so far - and this little patch we are going to look at is maybe 5 acres - we can look it up¿..

RC - it might be 100 acre patch

CJ - what is the largest LMT acre that you found

50:16 the largest board foot?

51:03 - 53:41 ambi at spot of interview (waves lapping and some humming of boat - after 52:00 boat is not as loud)

54:08 zipping tent
56:25 ¿¿ ¿¿

JULY 21 - going to record birds at 5am

1:00:23 - 1:02:05 recording rain in forest - early morning - lots of POPS -

1:04:10 starting the walk in the woods -

1:04:18 RC - we will leave our cook tarp here on the beach and walk along the shore for about a quarter mile. Tide is about half way up so it will be easy walking onthe beach and then we will cut up into the forest and I think looking at the air photos I think it will be thrash for a little while -a little brushy, but we will climb up about 100 feet and I hope we will get into a series of peetlands - bogs and fins with scattered small trees that will allow us to hike for about a mile over a pass then drop down into the river where the bigger trees are -

1:05:01 CJ - and tell me why the bigger trees are going to be where they are - right down near the river

RAINING IN BG
RC- well, we have spotted a little stream coming out of the uplands and forming an alluvial fan deposit where it meets this larger creek- comes into this estuary and in general, deposits of moving water are gravel, sands, cobbles and the finer materials like silts and clays are washed away which means that it is fairly good drainage. It gets rid of the water that most habitats around here ponds (?) up around tree roots and results in scrubbier forest. so we get the big trees on the stream deposits. 1:05:47

alluvial fan¿

1:06:04 RC - an alluvial fan is a fan shaped deposits that generally happens where a stream changes gradient (?). typically coming out of the uplands, coming down hill fairly fast we have got a lot of mtns terrain here and when it gets onto a level that velocity slows the stream begins to dump what it has been carrying and over hundreds of thousands of years it builds up a fan shaped feature that is convex in its cross section and the stream over time migrates across this fan, continues to build it up and it is leaving fairly coarse material which provides good drainage for the tree roots. And alluvial fans in se alaska are where our very large forests where - quite a few of the more accessible ones have been logged 1:06:59

CJ - so wherever you find an alluvial fan if you are looking on a geological map, you are looking for signs of alluvial fans as a signifying that this is a likely spot

RC - yeah - alluvial fans tend not to show up on geological maps bc they are such small features. But they are very easy to spot on an air photo

1:07:22 CJ - what other kind of wildlife and flora are we likely to see in this kindof region?

RC - well the 2 large animals - actually the only 2 large animals are the brown bear and the deer. And I am sure we will see a lot of signs of both of them. Whether we will see either of them we will wait and see 1:07:45

1:07:46-1:08:22 ambi

1:08:42 RC - I think overall this hike looks like about a mile and a half first little bit through the trees looks like there are some small trees with a lot of brush under them it might slow us down a bit but once we break out of there we will be in fairly open peetland for a half a mile or so and then we will descend into a river flat with some lush meadows, good foraging country for bear and deer and we are going to try and get across a stream that was too deep for us last year. So we brought a raft - we got to get across that and from there it is only a short distance to the large trees 1:09:31

CJ - you make it sound easy

RC - well, we will se. it will be fun. There are a whole lot of different habitats to pass through to get there, so we get to see a lot of the tongass on the way

how would you compare it to the hiking that you have to do to get into most of the LMT sites

1:09:51 RC - well, most of these sites are pretty remote. Very few of them are right along trails. I would say this is about average. Some of them we have had to go twice as far back in over more rugged country involving more bushwaking. This will give us just enough of a taste of bushwaking I think that youwill see what it is about w/o getting sick of it

1:10:34 RC -w e are camped on a nice gravel beach surrounded by more rocky coast line w/ the winds coming ot shore on the beach here, little 6 inch waves lapping against the cobbles and we are sitting under a tarp we set up ¿ to cook and plan for next step - this is a pretty good rain for se alaska. It has been going steadily all morning. Usually it comes and goes. It seems to be sitting on us today 1:11:08

1:11:09 - 1:12:06 ambi -

1:13:34 taking down the tarp - a lot of walking around in gravel and talking (but not on mike)

1:16:57 STARTING THE HIKE - Sam rambling on about a FINE SE ALASKA day¿.walking in gravel,

1:17:35 - CJ - how much does it rain here?

SS - downtown Juneau gets 105. 107 inches a year¿..

1:18:30 - walking over rocks - big rocks with barnacles GOOD ambi 1:19:19

1:19:23 RC - goosetounge - prob the most commonly gathered plant on our beaches. It looks like a grass but it is more succulent, less fibrous. Great in stir fry. Imp wild life food too. The geese will eat it. Hey - here is some glasswort (?). sea-asparagus is another name for it. (Sam- oh that is tasty!). this one is really salty, but you can rinse it in several changes of water and get rid of the salt. Want to try it? (Sam- that is actually quite good.) people pickle that. Kind of peppery.

Good crunching - 1:20:22 -

1:20:48 - more walking - close to waves hitting beach -

1:21:18 SS - what do you think Richard? Right here at this line (?) might be easier to walk? (Richard - yeah). Let¿s go up a little bit here and walk were it is less rocky, right along the edge of the forest here. We are coming around a little point here and there is the mighty Magister boat there all anchored up. Nice little protected cove in the wind (not on mike). Watch these rocks - pretty slippery in places (other talking in bg).

1:22:30 CJ - what kind of rock is this?

RC - this is all granite. And we are seeing actually exposed granite in the bedrock here¿.granite tends to be the least productive of our bedrock types. It is pretty acidic, and there is something about the way that it weathers does not lend itself to big forests, or very much to plants that are good forage for wildlife. Even up in the mtns what looks to be like lush alpine meadow can turn out to be pretty sparse pickings for animals like deer.

1:23:15 SS - from here you can kind of see the notch we are going through where the sky is a little lighter over there - the rainbow! Just kidding - but see there - right through there is where we are angling -

1:23:26 CJ - and where your pot of gold will be be

SS - yeah pot of gold

RC - yeah, our pot of gold!

SS - maybe we will see - we don¿t know

1:23:40 walking on stones

1:24:25 - SS and CJ - dungenous crab shell (off mike) ¿CJ - nice pink rosy color, isn¿t it

1:24:34 RC - Oh! Tooth marks! Looks like ah maybe an otter - I think that is a canine tooth of an otter and where the other one - that is the right spread for a large spread - when otter and mink go into a crab shell that is the easiest part for them to chew on this prob was alive and they brought it up on the beach here and ate it

SS - had breaky!

1:25:03 CJ - that is amazing. Just from those 2 little broken off pieces you can deduce that it is an otter tooth

RC - well, it is the typical place for them to hold a crab shell

SS- and it is the right spread of their mouth

1;27:20 walking along the water - G ambi - through 1:28:46

1:28:58 walking - some whistling

1:29:06 RC- this is more of our lingby (?) sedge - that salt tolerant grass-like plant that grows in these tide flats, and a lot of this has been grassed - lingby sedge. It is one of the sedges - a plant that looks like a grass but it is more palatable to grazers like bear, deer and goose in this country. 1:29:33

1:29:3 walking - NG ambi a lot of mike handling noise

1:31:03 Good walking ambi through 1:31:49 then some talking in bg begins

1:32:34 SS - we are walking along the edge here -w e are about to cut across where the tide comes up here a little delta - an isthmus -

1:33:51 RC - this little viewer is great - it is like a half mile up in the air circling around looking down on the country we are going through. We have got to just turn this corner and go maybe 50 yards up this little stream and that is where we will climb through the woods and I hope if we hit it just right we will
come out on a muskeg we can walk 1:34:12 -

1:34:13 ambi - 1:34:29

1:34:49 RC- ok, here we go up into the woods. It looks like we want to go south 10 degrees east for maybe a hundred yards. And bc the bog is maybe coming towards ua at a point and we want to hit that point we better use our compass, otherwise we are going to go twice as far as we need to. 1:35:12

1:35;13 ambi - getting out compass

1:35:37 RC - alright - south 10 degrees east would be 180 and go towards east 10 degrees is 170 and that points us that way

CJ - right into a pretty - dense thicket!

RC -a full of devils club - well, we need to meet devils club sooner or later.

CJ - I don¿t see the path some how

RC & SS - there ain¿t no path

SS - talking about ceating new stereoscopic viewers with compass inside the viewer¿

1:36:43 - ambi in area through 1:37:25

1: 39:11 thrush - in distance - faint ¿.

1:40;10 RC - that is a varied thrush - we are lucky to hear it bc they are pretty much through nesting now and when they are not territorially any more they tend to stop singing. One of the nicknames for that bird is the rain bird. It is really kind of. It is really kind of the signature bird of the rainforest for a lot of people.

1:40:30 more ambi with faint thrush in bg 1:40:51

1:41:43 more faint thrush through 1:43:00

1:43:26 walking through squishy mud 1:43:41

1:44:00 walking through - HEY bear! YO bear! Nice blueberries! Walking by Marcia - very good - Hey bear ¿ through 1:44:53

1:46:22-1:47:31 water dropping on a pond - ok for bg - thrush too

1:49:11 RC - wow we are out of it - sorry I got you guys down in that creek bottom there for a while. You can see a beautiful patch of fireweed down by the river there - we are going to try and walk quietly at first here instead of shouting as we have been to see if there is anything grazing out in the meadows. So we got maybe a quarter mile to go to the river, and we will blow up the raft if we need to. But we are down on the alluvial flat that has our large trees 1:49:43

1:49:44 - 1:50:07 ambi

end of DAT

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