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Interview 1:09 - 41:40 Play 1:09 - More
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Jerry Wellington  

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El Nino and corals  

Environmental Recording 48:05 - 50:33 Play 48:05 - More
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Island ambi  

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Environmental Recording 1:01:00 - 1:10:51 Play 1:01:00 - More
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Island ambi  

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Interview 1:11:39 - 1:23:30 Play 1:11:39 - More
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Jonathan Green, Kenneth Petren  

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El Nino and birds  

NPR/NGS Radio Expeditions
10 Jun 1998

    Geography
  • Ecuador
    Galápagos
    Locality
  • Galapagos Islands; aboard M/S Samba
    Latitude/Longitude
  • -0.284   -90.548
    Habitats
  • Marine
  • Ocean
    Recording TimeCode
  • 1:09 - 41:40
    Geography
  • Ecuador
    Galápagos
    Locality
  • Galapagos Islands; Daphne Major
    Latitude/Longitude
  • -0.42185   -90.37182
    Habitats
  • Marine Shoreline
    Features
  • Island
    Recording TimeCode
  • 48:05 - 1:23:30
    Channels
  • Stereo
    Sampling Rate
  • 48kHz
    Bit Depth
  • 16-bit
    Recorders
  • SONY TCD-D10 PRO II
    Microphones
  • Sennheiser MKH 30
  • Sennheiser MKH 40
    Accessories
    Equipment Note
  • Stereo=1; Decoded MS stereo; Sennheiser MKH40 Cardioid Mid Mic and MKH30 Bidirectional Side Mic into Sony TCD10 Pro 2

NPR/NGS RADIO EXPEDITIONS
Galapagos
DAT #9

ld
I'm rolling and its 9th of june 1998, a little late 10:30 in evening

intv with jerry

ms pair, sennheiser mkh 40, mkh 30 going into a tcdlO pro 2

0:51 in bow of samba, moon is full

1:16 ac how would you explain your desire to find this particular piece of coral ... (I : 42)?

1:47 jw
well ... there were a couple of diff obj .... one of them was to try and piece together a somewhat incomplete record, we have collected this coral through dissection of a very ancient coral that lived here in galapagos and had been uplifted in 1994 risen up above sea level, in a most unexpected place, I say unexpected, its
in an area where waters are cold which is the antithesis of where we expect to find coral

2:45 jw
there had been a sig changes in temp in this region ... but really wanted to know the timing of that ... and the record that we had revealed that the frequencies of this world-wide phenomenon that we call el nino has changed over this 400 yr peroid ... well our record goes back to about 1600 ... change in frequency about ev six yrs ... in fact frequency changes and not gradually but in a step-like fashion

3:45 jw it shows that about the time that we reached the beginning of the industrial revolution the freq
increases to about 3.3 yrs ...

ac thats about 150 yrs ago

exactly

ac and its been fairly stable since then

4:15 jw
you know its progressively increased. .. now at end of 20th century we see further increase something less than four yrs. So its been this natural progression.

4:59 ac why are the el ninos increasing?

5:25 jw
trying to understand are the changes that we're observing now due to man-related activities ... or is it in fact just natural variation ... basically because we lack a complete understanding ofthe factors that determine climate and weather and this is the challenge. .. as scientists we are challenged by trying to
interpret to what amount is related to natural variation ...

7:20 jw well we had a couple of objectives in this expedition ... upper 70 yrs was questionable ... somewhat ambiguous wanted to come back and get a complete record ... I think we were able to achieve that objective ... able to collect living corals

9: 12 ac
jigsaw puzzle .. .if one part of puzzle comes from ... how is it that all those pieces fit together, how complete is this puzzle ...

10:09 jw Gal lies in a v narrow zone that reflects a very large magnitude of climate change by looking at within the archipelago ... we'll be able to tell whether changes in ... in northern islands that will allow us to evaluate the sig of el nino in a broader sense there we would expect a consistent warm signal ... which are very sensitive to begin with we'll be able to cross check with that in the central part ... but I noticed .... determine mag of el nino 11:28

but I noticed that ... we need this record from here ... this record from here?

12:20 jw by cross-checking able to construct a chronology of change at sea surface temperatures over time.

13:00jw over the area over which the galapagos area exists ... ability to determine ... dependent over ... corals die and interrupt the record ... imp top be able to cross-check and thus interpret mag of el nino .. .

14:07 ac can find lines that match in diff corals?

14:40 if you can find these corals now maybe you can validate that 1954 coral which I guess is important.

15:31 ac asks about standing on top of big coral ...

16:40 jw a bit of a disappointment ... but on that uplifted area of urvina ...bit of a disappointment,
humbling...second devastating thing was that there was no way we could realization that we couldn't sample was disheartening to say the least ...
so here we are¬

18:24 ac
you wanted the clean simple solution of going to the 4 hundred yr old coral ... pulling a core out of that and working off of that. .

18:50 jw our goal is to be able to present a record ... we're seeking the truth and so we're seeking the solution ..

what's involved, by the time you could get there the things going to be altered.

21:00 ac asks what is significance of this work

21:18 jw
well ultimately we want to determine ... within lifetime have witnessed .. .imperative I think to be able to say that we are under going a weather change that is man-induced or natural ... from viewpoint of humanity ... many economic implications

23:05 jw if you can add to that information ...

23:18 it will enable legislature or whoever to make decisions ...

23:53 jw our research is funded by the public ...

25: 11 jw there is a schizophrenia in science ... because we are driven by curiosity and not a requirement, its the why, well why is that so, we're interested bc its intriguing but as a consequence ... well maybe theres some relation between frequency of el nino may in fact be related to something human
some change occurred w/o and anthropomorphic forcing ...

27:23 as scientists we are members of humanity and ity behooves us to know whether ... its a scientific activity based on curiosity and at the same time it has implications for the human condition.

28:21 undergrad degree in biology thought you were a scientists since when

28:27 from about the age of twelve

28:33 a marine biologist in particular ... 1 lived near seashore ...

29:39 and corals happen to be organisms that leave behind a record of their past ... in terms of. .. a signal

30:54 you can think of them as sort of like the redwood trees .... enable us to get a glimpse of the past ... they are the recorders of the tropics ... we must sample a number of these corals

32:32 you actually made ... the first surveys of the g islands in scientific terms ... you dreamt up the idea ... you wrote the plan for it 25yrs ago now you come back and look around ... what changes do you see

33:15 some of the most profound here ... el nino 1982-83 e.n. made a profound change ... that was astounding to me based on our earlier studies ... and now having that perspective in the past ... makes one
wonder ...

34:27 maybe, but why would there wll 16 yrs.

34:58 but still in the scheme of things ... determine to what extent ctr of action ... whether indeed these
changes are natural minute of ambi

38:33 now is an important talk about coral bleaching

41:47 Leo recording ambi for interview ... talling in background 41:11 more ambi, less talking, water lull in background ... some birds in background ...

46:15 rolling on Daphne major on june 10th ken and ellen, walking on trail

breathing and walking birds ...

stop and record birds very faint

air ... flies buzzing continuing walking ...

breathing, quality of recording goes in and out @51:00, mics getting knocked about.

52: 12 more breathing walking along track ...

52:34 well that will do it, laughs (very close to mic)

53:23 it already feels like 12:00 noon. The crater lives right up ahead

54:42 breathing but not walking, bird sounds, distant motor.

55:40 More walking and breathing

57:21 you know over nr the large crater there's a lot of activity ... walking to the large crater ...

@58:00 walking ...

1 :00:50 ambi ofbirds, great sound ...... 1:03:40 great clicking calls-l:04:04 1:05:40-1:06:16 (new call at end)

1:07:06¬

@1:08:38 screechy bird, clicking bird to 1:10:15

1:11:37 I'm ken petren, post-doc research asst. at Princeton name all species:
magnificent and greater frigate birds, sm, medium, and large ground finch, warblers, tropic birds with
screaming noises

in large bowl of crater

1: 13: 12 prob around 80-90 meters

1: 13:29 what have you seen?

1:13:41 finches are doing well, just have one clutch after another ... most obvious diff, reason why finches are succ. because vegetation and insects, plenty of food.

Adaptation?

1: 14:37 prob highest recorded pop in 25 yrs. , ... you wouldn't necc expect a single event like this to lead to adaptation or selection on the large scale although it has been shown in the past to produce changes in shape and size in the bill ... in the past there have been documented changes ... will have to wait in following yrs to see ...

1:16:35 in a non el nino yr how many times breed?

1:16:40 once or twice and now? 4,5,6 times

1:17: 54 the focus of the study this yr is to document their breeding in an el nino yr.

1:18: 19 jonathan green naturalist guide been working here since 1988 ...

1:18:41 striking more than anything is the vegetation, exuberance, absence of blue-footed booby, and in
fact their noise usually blankets out everything you can hear allover the island ... now there's total silence ... not a single to be seen or heard ... too busy fighting for survival

1:19:40 they're a marine species so because of warming small baitfish either aren't there or have gone too deep ... some marine birds, friggit birds appear to be continuing normally. .. there are those that are better
adapted.

1:21:23 can you estimate the finch population¬3/4 thousand ... talks about banding

1:22:20 talking about finch population

1:23:50 end

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