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Environmental Recording :04 - 3:55 Play :04 - More
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Underwater ambi, Snapping shrimp  

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California sea lion -- Zalophus californianus 18:30 - 19:33 Play 18:30 - More
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Time of Day: 1800  

Environmental Recording 23:31 - 34:50 Play 23:31 - More
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Lakeside ambi  

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Time of Day: 1825  

California sea lion -- Zalophus californianus 43:31 - 43:35 Play 43:31 - More
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Interview 45:19 - 53:07 Play 45:19 - More
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Rodrigo Bustamante  

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El Nino and its effects  

Interview 55:48 - 2:01:57 Play 55:48 - More
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Rob Dunbar, Jerry Wellington  

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Conversation; Coral drilling  

NPR/NGS Radio Expeditions
6 Jun 1998

    Geography
  • Ecuador
    Galápagos
    Locality
  • Galapagos Islands; Isabela Island; Tagus Cove
    Latitude/Longitude
  • -0.26639   -91.37417
    Habitats
  • Marine Shoreline
    Features
  • Island
    Recording TimeCode
  • :04 - 19:33
    Geography
  • Ecuador
    Galápagos
    Locality
  • Galapagos Islands; Isabela Island; Tagus Cove; Darwin Lake
    Latitude/Longitude
  • -0.25806   -91.37333
    Habitats
  • Marine Shoreline
  • Lagoon
    Features
  • Island
    Recording TimeCode
  • 23:31 - 34:50
    Geography
  • Ecuador
    Galápagos
    Locality
  • Galapagos Islands; Isabela Island; Tagus Cove
    Latitude/Longitude
  • -0.26639   -91.37417
    Habitats
  • Marine Shoreline
    Features
  • Island
    Recording TimeCode
  • 43:31 - 53:07
    Geography
  • Ecuador
    Galápagos
    Locality
  • Galapagos Islands; Isabela Island; Urvina Bay
    Latitude/Longitude
  • -0.29639   -91.36056
    Habitats
  • Marine Shoreline
    Features
  • Island
    Recording TimeCode
  • 55:48 - 2:01:57
    Channels
  • Stereo
    Sampling Rate
  • 48kHz
    Bit Depth
  • 16-bit
    Recorders
    Microphones
    Accessories
    Equipment Note
  • Stereo=1; Stereo hydrophones; Decoded MS stereo

NPR/NGS RADIO EXPEDITIONS
GALAPAGOS
DAT #6
June 7, 1998

en= el nino

water ambi

:04 water, rippling, then sounds of snapping shrimp(?)

4:20 walking ...
. . . breaks in recording ...

5:38 patches of underwater recording (1-2 seconds each) recording goes in and out.

Recording goes in and out (sounds like trying to make a hydrophone recording)

recording is not consistent, breaks in continuity ... sounds like beginning drilling ... more snapping shrimp ...

17:07
on boat, boat engine humming, lapping water, engine dies down bkground talking 17:50 water lapping, motor starts up again-loud but then fades away

18:30 sea lion calling--very good, sea lion breathing/snorting.

19:42 person walking and breathing

20:59 whoaa! and breathing to 23:19

where are we?

23:20 we're on the side of darwin crater lake which is in the Tagus Cove area the western isabella ...

what are we hearing around here?

23:41 constant cricket ... warbler, finches flying around.

Leo breathing ambi

24:16

birds chirping, crickets to 27:20

27:25 breathing and walking, bird calls to 29:22

29:30 talking in background. More ambi, distant birds, crickets, wind to

talking about sun, aztecs ... walking again, mics shifting, Leo breathing,

38:22 off mic night falls fast in the tropics.

42:04 walking (sounds like on pier) some type of walkway?

43:32 sea lions call-loud

engine sounds in background

45:19 ra
Rodrigo Bustamante, head of marine research unit at the charles darwin research station in galapagos devoted as technical advisors of the nat park service in marine issues in my case but in general on conservation ...

ac principle thing we are looking at are effects of el nino?

46:14 ra its a very interesting definition in the barrel of the gun , I'd say its the pressure point of the poles ifso if el nino is a 1ge phenomenon ev pass by here, galapagos is a corner, from south, west, north, so this is the corner where ev meets marine wise el nino is a passing by phenomenon that's happened x number of years. for us, and we've been learning ... we found that the el nino is a drought ... opp than what happen on land, land is a lot of rain moisture ... in sea opposite ...

47:07 ac its a drought?

47:09 ra its a drought, its an underwater drought hot water no _ less plants animals die of starvation, exactly what's happening in the terrestrial ecosystem when all the plants and animals die.

never heard of anyone describe el nino as drought ...

47:32 ra
well en is something very new, we have well doc en phenomenon only twice. Very first one was in 82-83 of this magnitude and it was not fully measured, but we never measured the previous one ... and in galapagos in particular we have the opp not see the change and this is the reason why we are here ... the increase of temp up to 6-7 degrees for ex in feb there were almost 31 deg almost 60 ft below ... v unusual, today at sixty ft below there were 16-15 deg Celsius, ... so this is the type of change that were not recorded before bc there were no people working in galapagos ... been working here for four yrs., this opp is unique I would say and uh we discover that the warming effect of the sea produces exactly what's happening in the terrestrial ecosystem, the plants die, the animals die, the ones that eat plants die ... while in the terrestrial eco there is a lot of lush and green, in the ocean is the opp. (49:29) now after en what has been called la nina we come a drought its the opp its like the system goes from side to side ... will be incredibly dry season but the sea will be very flourish and replenish and has been proposed in other pt of world...its been proposed as a reset button, so when something goes wrong you press the button ev starts fromzero that's what happen w en massive mortality its a bottleneck for many species ...all adult population ...50:30

50:40 ra its a bottleneck that makes evolution work in that Darwinian sense, who resists drastic events will make it...and what perfect place for darwinian concept than in galapagos.

ac talks about sig of galapagos

ra in a way its a dream of ev bio in the world to be in a place where this person in the past thought of what evolution could be, now to see it happening this el nino selection that's exactly what we were perceiving now, unfortunately, in the natural situation, that's been the norm, when you put on top ofthat the human pressure, the harvesting, the legal catching ... esp when this bottleneck happens prob some species will never recover, we have a natural selection but we are pressing on it another natural of human induced pressure ...and that's where we are intruding and we are not doing right 52:47

record ambi ... sea lion in bground, very quiet ends at 54:52

55:09 leo 7th june morning, getting ready to watch inspection of place where there is a coral reef on land where will do some drilling

55:37 motor starts up.

55:52 rd well we've arrived at urvina bay ... preparing to head ashore with several teams of people we're going carry our equip across the rough lava beach you can see in front of us into the interior of the uplift area we don't know exactly where the coral is but we're going to find it before we find this human chain...we'll carve out a path, ... but with the el nino rains ... we've got about five hundred pounds of equip to haul into this coral site ... and uh its going to be quite a struggle unless we can find the coral quickly and carve a path to it. 56:57

sounds of clinking metal ....

Good on board/equip ambi. @ 57:09-57:29 chain sound(?) w bground talking to

on board, getting ready ambi., background talking.

1:01:43 disassmble engine in two parts-ambi good, "nuts!" to @1:04:00

still on board, in back ofboat waiting for scouting party to arrive.

motor in background approaching, water splashing

1:05:07 jerry
well we found a compromise ... waves are to big to get into the most ideal spot but the compromise will cut off about % mile off our trek and its safe to get in maybe we'll put some people on shore to trek up to where we'll get off take the heaviest stuff first ... 1:05:41

more boat ambi

1:06:15 talking about beautiful beach, joking around

1:06:39 jerry "blessed be us on this devil island"

joking around, motor

1:09:29 (rd?)
Leo is looking a little bit about worried ... you know there's that point at which you stop worrying about your equip and start worrying about your life ... remember if it comes down to it just dump all of this stuff ...

1:11:10 jerry you two guys go over ...

talking about waves

1:1:29 stay in the boat, don't leap out, don't leap out yet

1:11:48 (off-mic) oh there's a big one coming, let's get out before that one comes

1:12:00...hold your breath end of recording

1:13:07 so I'll grab the water pump, who's going to take the engine?

Onshore moving equip, sounds of waves, walking

1:14:32 I am at a cove ... so here I am recording for some reason the machine has a tend to turn itself off- recording ambi

1:16:05

walking on gravel, sand pebbles, good waves on beach to 1:19:32

@1:22:00 walking, hiking to site, good

1:23:43 Leo ooh, coral be careful

1:24:01 yes, we're walking on coral this is the uplift. More sounds of walking

1:25:06 sounds of carrying equipment

pretty heavy underbrush

1:28:13 is that the trail

1:28:21 leo oh yea they're going to have a tough time going through this, this is hell.

1:29:14 jerry the large coral is over there ... we'll have to launch a search party to find it ... unless we can find a lava crack ... jonathan why is this trail marked, fifty groups a year, the original trail was originally cleared donkeys ... but trail not opened anymore ...

looking for head

yelling in background about looking for head

leo following jerry

@1:30:00 walking, breathing,

1:33:37 jerry we have a series of coral heads, this one over here is fairly large and you can see what happened
when this are uplifted, this are was upright, sort of toppled under its own weight ... excess of growth of the coral right here. 1:34:11

1:34:19 jerry split open like a watermelon along weak lines of growth...

is this what you're looking for?

1:34:29 jerry Yeah, no, This is a miniature of the one we're looking for

really? This one is big.

1:34:48 ac this one I'd say is as big as a bathroom, the one you're looking for is as big as a living room.

We're going to look for the big coral.

1:35:49 although we need the big coral...

1:36:33 rd
the big coral was 400 yrs old and it was sampled in 1986 by Mitch Cooligan, but the way they sampled it, they used sledgehammer and chiseled ... need continuous core.

That's the push for the big head.

Talking about process of obtaining previous big coral core sample ... (discussing problem of water)

1:41:02 sounds of brush vg

@1:45:40 setting up to drill, talking about setting engine up, hose. Looking for, talking about adapter, found in hose.

1:50:05 leo I'm adjusting levels here

1:50:20 ac day 4 of the expedition we've landed in fairly rough surf and carried equip, in here looking for a head of coral here in the land that was pushed up by geologic act. Only about 35 yrs, 45 yrs ago here the scientists are going to drill one of these uplifted coral heads they're looking to find the right one to drill and the massive one they haven't found yet, they're going to start on the smaller one, if they can find
the right one 1:50:54

talking about equip.

1:55:31 engine running. Talking about fixing hose ...

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