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short-finned pilot whale -- Globicephala macrorhynchus 24:01 - 27:58 Play 24:01 - More
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blow  

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Time of Day: 0850  

Sound Effects 55:23 - 56:04 Play 55:23 - More
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Anchor chain  

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Interview 1:04:25 - 1:31:06 Play 1:04:25 - More
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Jonathan Green  

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Marine Iguana  

Interview 1:31:07 - 1:44:52 Play 1:31:07 - More
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California Sea Lion  

California sea lion -- Zalophus californianus 1:35:50 - 1:39:44 Play 1:35:50 - More
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1 Immature Male  

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Interview 1:45:58 - 1:50:50 Play 1:45:58 - More
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Marine Iguana  

NPR/NGS Radio Expeditions
6 Jun 1998 at 08:50

    Geography
  • Ecuador
    Galápagos
    Locality
  • Galapagos Islands; Wolf Island
    Latitude/Longitude
  • 1.38611   -91.81972
    Habitats
  • Marine Shoreline
    Features
  • Island
    Recording TimeCode
  • 24:01 - 27:58
    Geography
  • Ecuador
    Galápagos
    Locality
  • Galapagos Islands; Fernandina Island; Punta Espinoza
    Latitude/Longitude
  • -0.26583   -91.44694
    Habitats
  • Marine Shoreline
    Features
  • Island
    Recording TimeCode
  • 55:23 - 1:50:50
    Channels
  • Stereo
    Sampling Rate
  • 48kHz
    Bit Depth
  • 16-bit
    Recorders
  • SONY TCD-D7
    Microphones
  • Sennheiser MKH 30
  • Sennheiser MKH 40
    Accessories
    Equipment Note
  • Stereo=2: 1=L, 2=R; Decoded MS stereo; Sennheiser MKH40 Cardioid Mid Mic and MKH30 Bidirectional Side Mic through Sonosax Preamp into Sony TCD7

NPR/NGS -Radio Expeditions
Galapagos
DAT #4

00: 01:20 chatting -no

01 :20 -16:47 Jerry and Rob talking informally about plans for day. [Use for script] What we want to have here is that upper 50 year record that is from the uplifted area to be able to duplicate it in a coral that was living below the surface for the last 50 years -get it from the same environments. Whether they exist from after '82, not sure. Been a western swell, more day there likely to get access. Tradeoff would be something up at Darwin would be even better than have here now. But the meter plus record we got today will be good. Looking at map to figure out where to go ..... RD: Record from Bartolome 1853-1949.Good to piece together a small specimen from 1949-1998. Would be a nice contribution. 11 :00-17:25 Jerry talking re. islands on the map. [No]

17:32 -18:46 AC: Rob and Jerry have to decide on Day 2. Notes sitting around pilot house on the Samba late on day 2 deciding whether to go north to Darwin or head south to Urvina Bay.

19:41 -23:24 JW. "Pilot whales off the bow .... " Right now .... not uncommon to see whales. This area is hoe to sperm whales. They seem to be as curious about us as we are of them. Describes them... there's a big guy

24:05 -24:20 FX -whale blows [but motor is loud] + FX -water stirred up and swirling.

26:25 -27:59 FX and Ambi good re. whales/sea

28:00 -32:08 [NG]

32:09 -33:40 Rob and Jerry on deck. Short description re. plans. Puento Espinosa -So what's the plan.
Go ashore? Try to do a dive. See devastation of El Nino, marine iguana dead or dying -then to Urvina
Bay ... bushwhack with machetes ... se islands on map [G]

36:30 -38:50 Ambi -boat moving through surf [G]

41:40 -43:50 Ambi -engine -at rear -with swirling water ambi -then just motor ambi. [G]

43:50 FX -door closes

45:05 -48:00 Ambi in Leo's cabin

55:00 -56 :08 Ambi -motor slow down and lowering of anchor [VG]

56:40 -57:40 Ambi -motor start up -gentle

58:02 -58:40 Ambi -motor -thumping around/creeks, Might be loweringboat into waterJYG]

1:00:00 -1:01:14 Ambi on boat getting things ready and moving stuff around

1:01:38 -1:03:30 -Ambi -getting into small boats -Boat start up and take off [for Espinosa] [VG]

1:03:30 FX Start up at sea.

1:04:27 -1:05:34 JG: ****

1:05:34 Ambi -boat landing + sighting of penguin, and flightless cormorant. + Ambi of high speed motor

1:09:00 -1:11:20 Ambi ****Begin connective ambi to 1:05:34 -landing sea lions, fur seals, FX of sea lion

1:14:30 -1:20:00 Log

1:20:00 -1:20:50 Ambi -Walking

1:20:50 -1:23:00 Jonathan Green **** Don't have to look very far re. stench like a cemetery of iguanas ... AC: description re. dead iguana JG: About all we see are dead iguanas. Don't see a live one. Iflook out at point see live iguanas. [pick up with Tina's logs]

1:04:27 jg motor...the area that we're going to land here is Espinosa, on the island of fernadina, and this is the westernmost island, the youngest island here in Gal. Geologically speaking its 112 million yrs old which geologically is ex young, its also one of the most active volcanoes in the world last eruption we had here was in 1996 and i think that was termed the eruption of the century, basically because it was easy to observe and it continued for a period of about three months. Its one ofthe most interesting islands faunistically speaking high level of endemism so a lot of the animals are unique to the island of fernandina. The area we're going to visit now has big populations of marine iguanas which of course are only found out on the galapagos unfortunately because of the effects of el nino this yr, the population has decreased immensely and we're prob looking at a die-out of maybe 50% of pop, so we'll see alot of carcasses when we land. motor (dies down)
1:05:34

1:14:30 jg
we can head in land a little bit through the mangroves and i think in high tide we'll have a little bit of wading to do, we can go out onto the point here and see how the marine iguana pop are doing out there. wind, motor in background ...
1:15:05

1:20:50 jg
well you don't have to look very far for the reason for the stench out here, its like a cemetery of iguanas ...

1:21:05 jg well just walking out here to the point there's one dead iguana, there's a second dead iguana, and the airs, heavy enough with the scent but i'm sure we'll encounter more ... turn the point of land and there's (alex counting) iguana just cast up here right at the line of the vegetation and just dead.

1:21:57 jg about all we can see here is dead iguanas i don't see a single live one

1:22:06 ac (off-mic) god that's huge

--jg we still have some live ones under the ...

1:22:20 jg
and if you look out here over the point you see the thin arm of lava that heads out into the bay, we have several tens of live iguanas out there.

1:23:05 ac is that guy feeding on that one?

1:23:07 jg they're small lava lizards that are taking advantage of two things well the flies are coming in bc of the quantities of dead iguanas and they feed on the flies but also they use the iguanas as a strategic lookout post so even the live ones you'll find that the small lava lizards will climb up on their backs, this one's a female bright red throat. so right now the pop of lava lizards are very high

1:23:50 jg now to see the anatomy of the iguana, the dead bodies are helpful because its one of the few times that we can look into the mouth of the iguana and you can see the unique teeth that they have, you'll notice tri-pointed teeth which are perfectly adapted to the gnawing behavior of feeding on algae.. .like a pair of pinking shears (wind) ... so presumably the ones that survived nino were the ones that were able to knaw very close to the rocks themselves 1:24:44

ld is that they're diet?

1:24:50 jg almost exclusively ... perhaps that's one of the problems, if an animal becomes very specific, feeds only on one particular type of food if you get any kind of change in habitat and that food disappears you have severe problems of surviving because they're so used to feeding almost exclusively on that. What we have seen here you can see for example there are some succulents growing on the beach area ... the question is whether or not the iguanas can actually digest that food. They'll feed on it, but being fairly specific I have doubts that they were able to digest much of that. 1:25:40

1:25:41 jg okay we have to avoid walking on these sandy areas here, these areas are nesting, there are the iguanas.

1:25:54 these depressions here ...

1:26:22 jg looking into the length of the fingers they have, incredibly long fingers and nails. Sweet smell they feed on the algae often in the wave zone so they'll swim out into the sea ...

1:26:40 ugh(muffled)

jg sweet smell

good exchange but off mic

1:26:54Id they eat no seafood whatsoever ...

--jg no ... you do see changes at times like this when we spotted for example, iguanas feeding on the feces of sea lions, again what's the nutrition that they're getting from that-I don't know.

1:27:45 jg
that's interesting that these sedges were alive just a week ago ... the rains stopped very abruptly I think about two weeks ago ...

ac and talking in background off mic

Leo adjusting mic

1:29:04 ac just tell me again why you think el nino does, is good for this population

1:29:10 jg
well I think if you look at the long-term effects of el nino what is happening to the population of el nino, those that are unfit in regards to being adapted to a particular environment are the ones that will die out when you get nino events and those that are better adapted ... and Galapagos is certainly a harsh environment are the ones that in the long-term will survive so the population in the long-term will be better adapted to this kind of environment 1:29:42

ac well of course very darwin-esque view

1:29:45 jg it is but that's the way I think you have to look at these islands-darwin saw them as the perfect laboratory for evolution and he wasn't wrong a number of species here are unique to the islands they've obviously evolved they've changed very very greatly when you compared them to their ancestors if we look at the land iguanas that re here now they bear v little resemblance to their ancestors that are still land iguanas that still exist on the mainland and then you take the marine iguana that evolved from the land iguana and you're going an even greater step forward ...so if you hadn't had these periods of particularly great climatological changes, el ninos, ...then you wouldn't have had that change, you wouldn't have had the evolution of species 1:30:29

ac because its the harsh conditions that demand the adaptation

1:30:32 jg yes, and only those that are the best adapted that will survive ...

1:31:03 jg so perhaps a die out every once in a while, keeps the pop healthy 1:31:07

talking about seeing sea lions, usually more in area ...

1:31:34 jg
you'll hear patrolling males ... hear calls of young to females and right now I don't think we can hear any sea lion activity ...

find live iguana @1:3 3 : 00, talking about why it may be out.. .

Water in bg.

1:35:55 ambi sea lion calls

Again better 1:36:31. ..1:36:35, keeps calling ***1 :36:54-1:38:00 water gets louder towards end (leo says that you can hear Sea lion breathing, but I couldn't quite hear distinct breaths)
surf, quite active sounding, sea lion sounds but faint in background 1:39:28 wind

1:41:15 ld
its obviously a female-sea lion .

. . . Talk about sea lion actually its a male ... sea lion

1:41:55 ac why is this sea lion surviving?

1:42:00 well I think timing is one thing...left female about two months ago, some of the population able to survive ...presumably he's a better fisherman than the other pups...

ac describing--rolling around .. .jg describing that must be healthy bc he's playing

1:43:47 ac that sea lion is about 6 ft away from us, he's completely unconcerned don't they show any

--jg fear?

1:43:54 jg He's aware of our presence ... we don't pose a threat to him (talks about how pup does not see humans as threat, most likely because didn't learn to fear humans from parents because this are gets a lot of human visitors. fear is a learnt behavior) ...

jonathan and rob talking

1:46:59 r do the iguanas interbreed w other colonies?

1:46:10 jg
not a lot of movement ... but some sort of exchange ...

rob
but don't you think that you're previous theory strong events (en) almost requires interbreeding?

talking about populations and interbreeding between iguanas

strong wind affecting recording

ambi. very rocky here

looking at flightless cormorants ...

leo describing scenery
1:53:00

1:54:00 ac
cormorants are water birds they're all over the world, but the cormorants here have given up flight cormorants are diving water birds, but the cormorants here have given up flight they're the only ones in the world like that Jonathan is going to lead us around the point of land to see some of them.

1:54:30 ac day three punta espinosa on fernandina 1:54:36

1:54:48 ac this is day three of the expedition, we're on the island of fernandina the westernmost of the islands we're on a place called punta espinosa 1:55:08

1:55:04 ac we're at a place called _ w park guide jonathan Green.

1:55:44 ac this is the most unusual beach I've ever seen, bc this is its a volcanoe ... rock going out is all black lava ... all around here are the bodies of dead iguana dead because ... the park guide jonathan green is along with us to explain. 1:56:30

1:56:45 ac the marine iguana carcasses are dried skin and bone these creatures are two feet long, two and a half maybe three feet long there's a kind of spine of spikes running down their backs they have these great lizard tails but when they're dead as many as these are they're skin turns a whitish grey and the remnants of their forearms are curled and sunken in its a pretty sad sight. 1:57:40

1:57:41 ac even so at the water's edge I can see a marine iguana that just climbed up there, I see ... (describes scene)

1:58:16 ac even so I see live marine iguana here I see a sea lion playing over in a cove lots of marine iguana maybe 15 feet away ... basking in the sun. 1:58:40

wind, water lapping on the shore, wind is heavy.

1:59:32 jg these are fecal droppings of the marine iguana and by that you can see what they've been feeding on ... and you can see undigested material ...

... and then you've got some fur ... that maybe they've been feeding on a dead sea lion carcass and what they're doing is basically excreting material because they can't digest it.

But they're hungry ...

jg they're hungry so they're trying anything they can

2:00:23 jg that's interesting too, the uh the way that certain animals will head out and try diff food sources and uh the possibility that those are the ones that could survive too by changing their behavior adapting to particularly difficult conditions who knows we could have marine iguanas that feed on mangroves, dead sea lions, unlikely however ...2:00:48

2:01:00 ambi. Water lapping on shore less ferocious sounding than earlier ambi recording ... 2:01:40

@2:03:10 talking about eating iguanas

2:03:55 alex trans spanish ...

2:04:40 ambi... a lot of wind ... very high wind water in background (nvg)

2:06:19 water ... 2:06:40 footsteps walking in sand ends at 2:07:13

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