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Interview 1:27 - 28:35 Play 1:27 - More
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Tim Stanton  

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Acoustic scattering properties of live zooplankton  

Sound Effects 28:37 - 1:11:26 Play 28:37 - More
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Waves  

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Interview 1:11:28 - 1:24:00 Play 1:11:28 - More
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William Michaels  

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Predator-prey study on Georges Bank  

Interview 1:29:23 - 1:36:12 Play 1:29:23 - More
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Predator-prey study on Georges Bank  

Environmental Recording 1:36:35 - 2:00:22 Play 1:36:35 - More
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Large boat ambi  

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NPR/NGS Radio Expeditions
May 1995

    Geography
  • United States
    Massachusetts
    Barnstable County
    Locality
  • Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
    Latitude/Longitude
  • 41.52446   -70.67094
    Recording TimeCode
  • 1:27 - 28:35
    Geography
  • United States
    Massachusetts
    Barnstable County
    Locality
  • Buzzards Bay
    Latitude/Longitude
  • 41.75139   -70.61361
    Habitats
  • Marine Shoreline
    Recording TimeCode
  • 28:37 - 1:11:26
    Geography
  • United States
    Massachusetts
    Barnstable County
    Locality
  • Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
    Latitude/Longitude
  • 41.52446   -70.67094
    Recording TimeCode
  • 1:11:28 - 1:24:00
    Geography
  • United States
    Massachusetts
    Barnstable County
    Locality
  • Woods Hole
    Latitude/Longitude
  • 41.52446   -70.67094
    Recording TimeCode
  • 1:29:23 - 2:00:22
    Channels
  • Stereo
    Sampling Rate
  • 48kHz
    Bit Depth
  • 16-bit
    Recorders
    Microphones
    Accessories
    Equipment Note
  • Stereo=1; Decoded MS stereo; Omnis; B&K 4006 Omni mics

Overfishing
DAT #3

TS = Tim Stanton
BM = Bill Michaels
AC = Alex Chadwick

inside an interview with Tim Stanton mid left side right

setting it up through 00:44

00:45 inside sound -NG through 1:01, then something is strange with the sound -only can hear it clearly through one ear.....

1:26 TS: My name is Tim Stanton. I am senior scientist at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in Woods Hole, Massachusetts ....my project is to measure and characterize the acoustic scattering properties of live zooplankton.

1:48 AC: OK, just show us what's happening here on these small scopes in front of us.

1:55 What we have here is an oscilloscope. An oscilloscope presents us with a display of voltage versus time. And as I said before, we are measuring acoustic echo properties, or acoustic scattering properties of the zooplankton but to do that we need to use voltages, in which we apply voltages to our underwater loudspeakers, or our transducers, the voltage then get translated into sound. that bounces off the animals, and comes back to our receiver, and that transfers the acoustic energy and the voltage and it gets displayed on our voltage vs. time display. So its a somewhat complicated process, but it allows us to do a quantitative study. So what we have here is a squiggly line, and it begins somewhat flat and that's a dead time. that's a little bit like when you clap your hands near the wall. for a while you don't hear anything. and then eventually you hear this echo coming back. and so the first blip, this wiggly blip, is the echo from this ob beat we have suspended in front of our underwater loudspeaker. and following that is another dead zone, and so there is no echo, and then after that we have this much louder echo which is the echo from the back of the tank. and so we have 2 big echoes here.

3:40 AC this actually is ultra sound. we can't actually hear this, although its active and going on right now.

TS-That's right. all we can hear right now is just the sound of the fan which keeps our power supply cool. our lowest frequency is 50 khz or 50,000 cycles per second so the mechanical vibrations in the water are going back and forth 50,000 times per second. now the highest pitch that we can here is 20,000 cycles per second. now that's a very high pitch. older people can maybe hear as high as 10,000. when we speak it's usually a few thousand cycles or lower. concert A is 440 cycles per second. so that tells you about some of the ranges that we have. so we are about -our lowest pitch is about 2 and a half times higher than the highest audible sound.

4:41 AC could a dog hear this?

4:44 TS i don't know enough about dogs to be able to answer that,
but given that dog whistles are ultra sonic it could possibly be up in that range. This is up in the same range that bats can hear. And our upper range is in the same range as the medical ultra sound. which people use echo scanners, which are scaled down versions of what we are doing to monitor human fetuses.

discussion of how to get a clear sound...........ambi of the background... 5:56-6:58

6:59 AC Things that we are very interested in is trying to explain to people the idea of the food chain. now you have noted that zooplankton is actually fairly high up on the food chain, but creatures that you are talking about, the size of these things you are talking about are -we would say microscopic, of course we would be misusing the word microscopic, but they seem very small. How big are these things? A millimeter?

TS: We deal with a wide range of sizes of zooplankton. Some of the smaller ones are 1 millimeter in size, the larger ones are 1, 2 or 3 centimeters long. So a range of 10, 20, or 30 to 1. So it is a pretty substantial size.

7:53 AC: Your work is to try to identify these things, because you can't go down -there is no realistic way to go down and count these things one by one and looking at them or anything. so you had the [loud HONK of truck/boat horn] idea that you can sort of essay these things acoustically and get some idea of what's there.

*8:19 TS: That's right Tom (?). The biggest problem is that light doesn't travel well through the water. That's a pretty well known fact. You just look at the ocean. The ocean is dark. Light does go well through the water. Mostly in some mid-¬latitude region like the Bahamas were you can see some distance, but certainly not to the bottom if you are in deep water. there is a well known saying that we know much more about the surface of the moon than the bottom of the ocean. The reason is the light travels quite nicely through our atmosphere all the way to the moon and back. so in one instant we can take a snap shot ¬the entire surface of the moon facing us. unfortunately we can't do the same for the ocean. so we have to use another means. one standard technique is the use of nets. biologists will use a variety of nets of different mesh sizes to go out in the ocean and very laborious gather the zooplankton. that is quite effective. because they will be able to bring the animals on board the ship, count them, identify the species, and perform a number of control studies on the animals. However, the ocean is very large, the ships go very slowly, and very importantly the populations of the animals change in time. because of the currents and the different feeding habits. so the biologists need a very quick method

36:00 jay allison -good waves through 54:00

54:00 buzzards point -omnis, xy , more waves

58:49 waves, good -could be used as bg while on boat

1:00:25 waves get calmer

[use above waves]

1:01:12 -1:03:47 bg. airplane? motor boat?

1:03:47 calm waves

1: 06: 43 omnis, b&k's -airplane, no good

1:07:35 big, strong, waves -bg. plane

1:10:08 good waves -bird @. 1:10:25-1:10:27)

1:11:03 bg. motor boat

1:11:26 end of waves

1:11:53 BM: my name is Bill Michaels. i am employee on the national marine fisheries service a fisheries research biologist. i am the chief scientist of the coastal ocean program, predator to prey study on George's bank. so i am the chief scientist for the field work in this program.

AC: what is the goal of this project that you are undertaking

BM: the goal of the project is to look at multi-species interactions, with a focus on the predation, and the ultimate goal of the project is to provide information for adaptive fishery mgt programs. in other words, the conventional fisheries mgt programs have focused on one species, but now biologists are realizing that say for instance the recovery of cod and haddock could be dependent of the predation pressure of non-traditional species that have increased in abundance recently.

1:13:01AC: how did you discover that?

BM: well, the national marine fisheries service is very fortunate in that they have a very large time series of data. we have been collecting data for three decades. our bottom trawl surveys are done on a routine basis. the Georges bank system is probably one of the best studied systems in the world, and to have this information allows us to see patterns. and once we see these patterns it allows us to focus our work, which is the case in this study.

1:13:36 AC: in this particular case the pattern that you have seen

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