ML 116340


Gray Wolf -- Canis lupus More
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Sight and Sound





Ronald Schassburger
27 Apr 1975 at 00:00

  • United States
    New York
    Tompkins County
  • Wolf hut at Sapsucker Woods
No locations found with lat/long
  • Mono
    Sampling Rate
    Bit Depth
  • UHER 4000 REPORT L
  • Sennheiser MKH 104
    Equipment Note

NOTES: newborn wolf pups (see below for individuals' details)
[seg 2] 5 newborn wolf pups whining; with C whining in the background; K scratching
[seg 3] voiceover ^
[seg 4] newborn wolf pups crying
[seg 5] voiceover ^
NOTES ON INDIVIDUALS (Eastern and Western timber wolves - the first 6 in the
list survived to form the pack):
Abbrev. Name Sex DOB Birthplace Rank
N Niska M 21/04/1973 Seattle alpha
K Kiowa F 21/04/1973 Seattle alpha
O Chippewa M 01/05/1974 Syracuse beta
M Mahican M 01/05/1974 Syracuse omega
I Iroquios F 01/05/1974 Syracuse beta
C Cherokee F 01/05/1974 Syracuse omega
S Shawnee F 01/05/1974 Syracuse (died at 8 months)
[Others were Dakota, Blackfoot, Pawnee and Shoshoni from
Western pack (Seattle) who all died aged approx 4 months;
an unnamed pup from Western pack which died at 1 month]
* 3 July 1973: N & 'no-name' obtained aged 10 weeks (having been hand-reared at Woodland Park Zoo, Seattle)
* 27 Aug 1973: 'no-name' died possibly from torsion of stomach
* 7 Nov 1973: obtained another female from same litter, K, who had not been hand-reared and was intolerant of human approach
[the above 3 were N American timber wolves of Western lineage, subspecies unknown]
* 22 May 1974: O,M,I,C obtained aged 3 weeks and subsequently hand-reared by exp. during most of early development kept in 680 sq foot enclosure (pen D) approx. 50 feet from main pens housing N & K.
[the above 4 were N american timber wolves of Eastern lineage (Canis lupus lycaon)]
--Eastern pups: end of 3 months of age: M -> O -> I -> C -> S
-- end of 4 months of age: O -> M -> I -> C -> S
* 1 Jan 1975: S escaped, run over and killed; remaining 4 pups moved to pen B adjacent to pen A housing N & K.
* 21 Jan 1975: severe fight between O & M (M challenging O's alpha status) with O emerging as victor; M nevr again seriously challenged O.
--During the time Eastern and Western packs were separated, Western showed dominance over Eastern who were subordinate.
* Feb 1975: (not sure of exact date) Eastern and Western packs united: Eastern initiated fighting: I (joined by C) attacked K; O (joined by M) attacked N. N & K emerged victors after only 5-10 mins.
--Thereafter a stable dominance hierarchy: males: N -> O -> M ; females: K -> I -> C.
--N seldom and mildly suppressed O & M;
--However K vigorously and frequently suppressed I & C, esp C who was also beaten up by N.
* 26 April 1975: K's first litter (fathered by N); pups named Dakota (D), Blackfoot (B), Pawnee (P), Shoshoni (S) and 'other'.
* 30 May 1975: 'oher' died from hookworm; remainder of pups separated from juv and adults and kept in pen C a small outdoor enclosure.
* 2 Aug 1975: D died of hookworm aged 3&1/2 months; remaining pups placed back in main enclosure with juv and adults. (all pups being treated)
* 7 Aug 1975: P died of hookworm
* 15 Aug 1975: B died
* 20 Aug 1975: S(Shoshoni) died; all pups died despite treatment for hookworm.
* 26 April 1976: K's second litter (also fathered by N); 3 males, 2 females; all died of hookworm by 1 month of age.
* 3 May 1976: point finally reached were old wounds on subordinate females being reopened; exp decided to separate Eastern and Western packs: placed in adjacent pens; by one month later exp had managed to effectivly seal fence from break-ins; tension between animals grew; rank-order dissolved.
* 23 March 1977: O, M & I dug into other pen and beat N & K; N badly beaten; taken to vet school; returned a few days later.
* 16 April 1977: another break-in: I & C's attacks on K so violent that she was killed.
--new hierarchy: males: O -> M -> N ; females: I -> C.
--N replaced C as the subordinate outcast
* 6 May 1977: I produced first litter (fathered by O); 12/13 pups in all; 4 males and 2 females survived to next day; 2 more died of hookworm; treatment with anthelmintics enable remaining 4 to survive; donated to Cornell student for behavioural study.
* 12 May 1978: I produced second litter (also by O); 4 males and 2 females; two died and others given to Harvard and Canadian breeder.
SCHEDULE OF OBSERVATIONS (including recording vocalisations):
July / Aug 1974: Eastern cubs: 30 hours total
Dec 1974: Eastern cubs: 10 hours total
Jan 1975: Eastern juv.s adjacent to Western adults: 12 hours total
Feb 1975: Union of pack: 24 hours total
March - Dec 1975: 12 hours each month
Jan 1976: 12 hours
Feb 1976: 24 hours
March/April 1976: 6 hours each month
July 1976: 16 hours (including Western cubs)

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